calcification (kal"si-fi-ka-shun) Deposition of calcium salts in a tissue. p. 209 calcitonin (kal"si-to'-nin) Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that helps regulate the level of blood calcium. p. 522 calorie (kal'o-re) A unit used to measure heat energy and the energy contents of foods. p. 745

calorimeter (kal"o-rim'ei-ter) A device used to measure the heat energy content of foods; bomb calorimeter. p. 746 canaliculus (kan"ah-lik'u-lus) Microscopic canals that connect the lacunae of bone tissue. p. 158 capacitation (kah-pas"i-ta'shun) Activation of a sperm cell to fertilize an egg cell. p. 891

capillary (kap'i-ler"e) A small blood vessel that connects an arteriole and a venule. p. 602

carbohydrate (kar"bo-hi'drat) An organic compound that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen atoms. p. 50 carbonic anhydrase (kar-bon'ik an-hi'dras)

Enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid. p. 811 carbon monoxide (kar'bon mon-ok'sld) A toxic gas that combines readily with hemoglobin to form a relatively stable compound; CO. p. 810 carbaminohemoglobin (kar-bam"i-no-he"mo-glo'bin) Compound formed by the union of carbon dioxide and hemoglobin. p. 811 carboxypeptidase (kar-bok"se-pep'ti-das) A protein-splitting enzyme in pancreatic juice. p. 707 cardiac center (kar'de-ak sen'ter) A group of neurons in the medulla oblongata that controls heart rate. p. 423 cardiac conduction system (kar'de-ak kon-duk'shun sis'tem) System of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that conducts cardiac impulses from the S-A node into the myocardium. p. 595

cardiac cycle (kar'de-ak si'kl) A series of myocardial contractions that constitutes a complete heartbeat. p. 591 cardiac muscle (kar'de-ak mus'el)

Specialized type of muscle tissue found only in the heart. p. 161 cardiac output (kar'de-ak owt'poot) A

measurement calculated by multiplying the stroke volume in milliliters by the heart rate in beats per minute. p. 610 cardiac sphincter (kar'de-ak sfingk'ter) A ring of muscle located at the junction of the esophagus and stomach that prevents food from re-entering the esophagus when the stomach contracts; lower esophageal sphincter. p. 700 cardiac vein (kar'de-ak van) Blood vessel that returns blood from the venules of the myocardium to the coronary sinus. p. 589 cardiovascular (kar"de-o-vas'ku-lar)

Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels. p. 581

carina (kah-ri'nah) A cartilaginous ridge located between the openings of the right and left bronchi. p. 786 carotene (kar'o-ten) A yellow, orange, or reddish pigment in plants and a precursor of vitamin A. p. 750 carotid bodies (kah-rot'id bod'ez) Masses of chemoreceptors located in the wall of the internal carotid artery near the carotid sinus. p. 625 carpal (kar'pal) Bone of the wrist. p. 212 carpus (kar'pus) The wrist; the wrist bones as a group. p. 237 cartilage (kar'ti-lij) Type of connective tissue in which cells are located within lacunae and are separated by a semisolid matrix. p. 156

cartilaginous joint (kar"ti-laj'i-nus joint) Two or more bones joined by cartilage. p. 272

catabolism (ka-tab'o-lizm) Metabolic process that breaks down large molecules into smaller ones; catabolic metabolism. p. 110 catalase (kat'ah-las) An enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. p. 112 catalyst (kat'ah-list) A chemical that increases the rate of a chemical reaction, but is not permanently altered by the reaction. p. 47 cataract (kat"ah-rakt) Loss of transparency of the lens of the eye. p. 497 catecholamine (kat"ei-kol'am-in) A type of organic compound that includes epinephrine and norepinephrine. p. 525 cauda equina (kaw'da ek-wln'a) A group of spinal nerves that extends below the distal end of the spinal cord. p. 401 cecum (se'kum) A pouchlike portion of the large intestine attached to the small intestine. p. 723 celiac (se'le-ak) Pertaining to the abdomen. p. 24

cell (sel) The structural and functional unit of an organism. p. 6

cell adhesion molecules (sel ad-hee'zhon mol'e-kulz) Proteins that guide cellular movement within the body; CAMs. p. 71 cell body (sel bod'e) Portion of a nerve cell that includes a cytoplasmic mass and a nucleus, and from which the nerve fibers extend. p. 364 cell cycle (sel sl-kl) The life cycle of a cell consisting of Gj (growth), S (DNA synthesis), G2 (growth), and mitosis (division). p. 94 cellular immune response (sel'u-lar 1-mun re-spons') The body's attack on foreign antigens carried out by T-lymphocytes and their secreted products. p. 663 cell membrane (sel mem'bran) The selectively permeable outer boundary of a cell consisting of a phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins. p. 65 cellular respiration (sel'u-lar res"pi-

ra'shun) Process that releases energy from organic compounds in cells. p. 114 cellulose (sel'u-los) A polysaccharide very abundant in plant tissues that human enzymes cannot break down. p. 50 cementum (se-men'tum) Bonelike material that fastens the root of a tooth into its bony socket. p. 693 central canal (sen'tral kah-nal') Tube within the spinal cord that is continuous with the ventricles of the brain and contains cerebrospinal fluid. p. 402 central nervous system (sen'tral ner'vus sis'tem) Portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord; CNS. p. 363 centriole (sen'tre-ol) A cellular structure built of microtubules that organizes the mitotic spindle. p. 78 centromere (sen'tro-mer) Portion of a chromosome to which spindle fibers attach during mitosis. p. 884 centrosome (sen'tro-som) Cellular organelle consisting of two centrioles. p. 78 cephalic (se-fal'ik) Pertaining to the head. p. 24

cerebellar cortex (ser"(l-bel'ar kor'teks) The outer layer of the cerebellum. p. 424 cerebellar peduncles (ser"(l-bel'ar pe-dung'kl) A bundle of nerve fibers connecting the cerebellum and the brain stem. p. 424 cerebellum (ser"ei-bel'um) Portion of the brain that coordinates skeletal muscle movement. p. 424 cerebral aqueduct (ser'e-bral ak'we-

dukt") Tube that connects the third and fourth ventricles of the brain. p. 398 cerebral cortex (ser'e-bral kor'teks) Outer layer of the cerebrum. p. 413 cerebral hemisphere (ser'e-bral hem'i-sfer) One of the large, paired structures that together constitute the cerebrum of the brain. p. 412 cerebrospinal fluid (ser"ie-bro-spi'nal floo'id) Fluid occupying the ventricles of the brain, the subarachnoid space of the meninges, and the central canal of the spinal cord; CSF. p. 397

cerebrovascular accident (ser"e-bro-vas'ku-lar ak'si-dent) Sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain; a stroke. p. 419 cerebrum (ser'e-brum) Portion of the brain that occupies the upper part of the cranial cavity and provides higher mental functions. p. 412 cerumen (se-roo'men) Waxlike substance produced by cells that line the external ear canal. p. 469 cervical (ser'vi-kal) Pertaining to the neck or to the cervix of the uterus. p. 24 cervix (ser'viks) Narrow, inferior end of the uterus that leads into the vagina. p. 905 chemoreceptor (ke"mo-re-sep'tor) A receptor that is stimulated by the binding of certain chemicals. p. 455 chemotaxis (ke"mo-tak'sis) Attraction of leukocytes to chemicals released from damaged cells. p. 557 chief cell (chef sel) Cell of gastric gland that secretes various digestive enzymes, including pepsinogen. p. 700 chloride shift (klo'rld shift) Movement of chloride ions from the blood plasma into red blood cells as bicarbonate ions diffuse out of the red blood cells into the plasma. p. 811

cholecystokinin (ko"le-sis"to-ki'nin)

Hormone the small intestine secretes that stimulates release of pancreatic juice from the pancreas and bile from the gallbladder. p. 704

cholesterol (ko-les'ter-ol) A lipid produced by body cells used to synthesize steroid hormones and excreted into the bile. p. 740

cholinergic fiber (ko"lin-er'jik fi'ber) A nerve fiber that secretes acetylcholine at the axon terminal. p. 440 chondrocyte (kon'dro-slt) A cartilage cell. p. 156

chorion (ko're-on) Extra-embryonic membrane that forms the outermost covering around a fetus and contributes to formation of the placenta. p. 947 chorionic villi (ko"re-on'ik vil'i) Projections that extend from the outer surface of the chorion and help attach an embryo to the uterine wall. p. 947 choroid coat (ko'roid kot) The vascular, pigmented middle layer of the wall of the eye. p. 484

choroid plexus (ko'roid plek'sus) Mass of specialized capillaries from which cerebrospinal fluid is secreted into a ventricle of the brain. p. 398 chromatid (kro'mah-tid) One half of a replicated chromosome or a single unreplicated chromosome. p. 884 chromatin (kro'mah-tin) DNA and complexed protein that condenses to form chromosomes during mitosis. p. 82 chromatophilic substance (kro"mah-to-fil'ik sub'stans) Membranous sacs within the cytoplasm of nerve cells that have ribosomes attached to their surfaces; Nissl bodies. p. 364

chromosome (kro'mo-som) Rodlike structure that condenses from chromatin in a cell's nucleus during mitosis. p. 978 chylomicron (kil"o-mi'kron) A microscopic droplet of fat in the blood following fat digestion. p. 720 chyme (klm) Semifluid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach to the small intestine. p. 705 chymotrypsin (ki"mo-trip'sin) A proteinsplitting enzyme in pancreatic juice. p. 707 cilia (sil'e-ah) Microscopic, hairlike processes on the exposed surfaces of certain epithelial cells. p. 78 ciliary body (sil'e-er"e bod'e) Structure associated with the choroid layer of the eye that secretes aqueous humor and contains the ciliary muscle. p. 485 circadian rhythm (ser"kah-de'an rithm) A pattern of repeated behavior associated with the cycles of night and day. p. 534 circle of Willis (sir'kl uv wil'is) An arterial ring located on the ventral surface of the brain. p. 623 circular muscles (ser'ku-lar mus'lz) Muscles whose fibers are arranged in circular patterns, usually around an opening or in the wall of a tube; sphincter muscles. p. 486

circumduction (ser"kum-duk'shun)

Movement of a body part, such as a limb, so that the end follows a circular path. p. 276

cisternae (sis-ter'ne) Enlarged portions of the sarcoplasmic reticulum near the actin and myosin filaments of a muscle fiber. p. 302 citric acid cycle (sit'rik as'id si'kl) A series of chemical reactions that oxidizes certain molecules, releasing energy; Krebs cycle. p. 114

cleavage (klev'ij) The early successive divisions of the blastocyst cells into smaller and smaller cells. p. 942 clitoris (kli'to-ris) Small erectile organ located in the anterior portion of the vulva; corresponds to the penis. p. 907 clone (klon) A group of cells that originate from a single cell and are therefore genetically identical. p. 663 CNS Central nervous system. p. 363 coagulation (ko-ag"u-la'shun) Blood clotting. p. 564

cocarboxylase (ko"kar-bok'si-las) A

coenzyme synthesized from thiamine that oxidizes carbohydrates. p. 753 cochlea (kok'le-ah) Portion of the inner ear that contains the receptors of hearing. p. 471

codominant (ko-dom'i-nant) Both alleles fully expressed. p. 985 codon (ko'don) A set of three nucleotides of a messenger RNA molecule corresponding to a particular amino acid. p. 125 coenzyme (ko-en'zlm) A nonprotein substance that is necessary for the activity of a particular enzyme. p. 113 coenzyme A (ko-en'zlm) Acetyl coenzyme A. p. 117

cofactor (ko'fak-tor) A nonprotein substance that must be combined with an enzyme for activity. p. 113 collagen (kol'ah-jen) Protein in the white fibers of connective tissues and in bone matrix. p. 152 collateral (ko-lat'er-al) A branch of a nerve fiber or blood vessel. p. 364 collecting duct (ko-lek'ting dukt) In the kidneys, a straight tubule that receives fluid from several nephrons. p. 825 colon (kolon) The large intestine. p. 723 colony-stimulating-factor (ko'le-ne stim'yu-lay"ting fak'tor) A protein that stimulates differentiation and maturation of white blood cells. p. 548 color blindness (kul'er bllnd'nes) An inherited inability to distinguish certain colors. p. 455 colostrum (ko-los'trum) The first secretion of a woman's mammary glands after she gives birth. p. 920 common bile duct (kom'mon bll dukt) Tube that transports bile from the cystic duct to the duodenum. p. 714 compact bone (kom'pakt bon) Dense tissue in which cells are arranged in osteons with no apparent spaces. p. 196 compartment (com-part'ment) A space occupied by a group of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves that is enclosed by fasciae. p. 857 complement (kom'ple-ment) A group of enzymes that are activated by the combination of antibody with antigen and enhance the reaction against foreign substances within the body. p. 667 complementary base pair (kom"ple-men' ta-re bas par) Hydrogen bond joins adenine and thymine or guanine and cytosine in DNA. Adenine bonds to uracil in RNA. p. 123

completely penetrant (kom-plet'le pen'e-trent) In genetics, indicates that the frequency of expression of a genotype is 100%. p. 986 complete protein (kom-plet pro'ten) A

protein that contains adequate amounts of the essential amino acids to maintain body tissues and to promote normal growth and development. p. 743 compound (kom'pownd) A substance composed of two or more chemically bonded elements. p. 39 concussion (kon-kush'un) Loss of consciousness due to a violent blow to the head. p. 419 condom (kon'dum) A latex sheath used to cover the penis during sexual intercourse; used as a contraceptive and to minimize the risk of transmitting infection. p. 926 conduction (kon-duk'shun) Movement of body heat into the molecules of cooler objects in contact with the body surface. p. 182

condyle (kon'dll) A rounded process of a bone, usually at the articular end. p. 214

condyloid joint (kon'di-loid joint) A bone with an ovoid projection at one end joined with a bone possessing a complementary elliptical cavity. p. 276 cone (kon) Color receptor in the retina of the eye. p. 491

conformation (kon-for-ma'shun) The three-dimensional form of a protein, determined by its amino acid sequence and attractions and repulsions between amino acids. p. 54 conjunctiva (kon"junk-ti'vah) Membranous covering on the anterior surface of the eye. p. 481

connective tissue (ko-nek'tiv tish'u) One of the basic types of tissue that includes bone, cartilage, blood, loose and fibrous connective tissue. p. 151 contraception (kon"trah-sep'shun) A behavior or device that prevents fertilization. p. 923 contralateral (kon"trah-lat'er-al) Positioned on the opposite side of something else. p. 21

convection (kon-vek'shun) The transmission of heat from one substance to another through the circulation of heated air particles. p. 182 convergence (kon-ver'jens) Nerve impulses arriving at the same neuron. p. 385 convolution (kon"vo-lu'shun) An elevation on a structure's surface caused by infolding of it upon itself. p. 412 cornea (kor'ne-ah) Transparent anterior portion of the outer layer of the eye wall. p. 483

coronal (ko-ro'nal) A plane or section that divides a structure into front and back portions. p. 22 coronary artery (kor'o-na"re ar'ter-e) An artery that supplies blood to the wall of the heart. p. 589 coronary sinus (kor'o-na"re si'nus) A large vessel on the posterior surface of the heart into which the cardiac veins drain. p. 589 corpus callosum (kor'pus kah-lo'sum) A mass of white matter within the brain, composed of nerve fibers connecting the right and left cerebral hemispheres. p. 412 corpus luteum (kor'pus lu'te-um) Structure that forms from the tissues of a ruptured ovarian follicle and secretes female hormones. p. 910 cortex (kor'teks) Outer layer of an organ such as the adrenal gland, cerebrum, or kidney. p. 525

cortical nephron (kor'ti-kl nef'ron) A

nephron with its corpuscle located in the renal cortex. p. 829 cortisol (kor'ti-sol) A glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex. p. 529 costal (kos'tal) Pertaining to the ribs. p. 24 countercurrent mechanism (kown'ter-kar"ent me'ke-ni"zm) Process by which the kidneys concentrate urine. p. 839 covalent bond (ko'va-lent bond) Chemical bond formed by electron sharing between atoms. p. 44 coxal (kok'sel) Pertaining to the hip. p. 24

cranial (kra'ne-al) Pertaining to the cranium. p. 11

cranial cavity (kran'e-al kav'i-te) A hollow space in the cranium containing the brain. p. 11

cranial nerve (kra'ne-al nerv) Nerve that arises from the brain. p. 426 cranium (kra'ne-um) Eight bones of the head. p. 213 creatine phosphate (kre'ah-tin fos'fat) A muscle biochemical that stores energy. p. 308

crenation (kre-na'shun) Shrinkage of a cell caused by contact with a hypertonic solution. p. 87 crest (krest) A ridgelike projection of a bone. p. 214

cretinism (kre'ti-nizm) A condition resulting from lack of thyroid secretion in an infant. p. 523

cricoid cartilage (kri'koid kar'ti-lij) A

ringlike cartilage that forms the lower end of the larynx. p. 782 crista ampullaris (kris'tah am-pul-lah'ris) Sensory organ located within a semicircular canal that functions in the sense of dynamic equilibrium. p. 476

crossing-over (kros'ing-o'ver) The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis. p. 886 crossmatching (kros'mach"ing) A procedure used to determine whether donor and recipient blood samples will agglutinate. p. 572

crural (krur'al) Pertaining to the leg. p. 24 cubital (ku'bi-tal) Pertaining to the elbow. p. 24

cuspid (kus'pid) A canine tooth. p. 693 cutaneous (ku-ta'ne-us) Pertaining to the skin. p. 169 cyanocobalamin (si"ah-no-ko-bal'ah-min)

Vitamin B-12. p. 755 cyanosis (si"ah-no'sis) Bluish skin coloration due to decreased blood oxygen concentration. p. 184 cyclic adenosine monophosphate (sik'lik ah-den'o-sen mon"o-fos'fat) A circularized derivative of ATP that responds to messages entering a cell and triggers the cell's response; cyclic AMP or cAMP. p. 508

cyclosporin (si"klo-spor'in) A drug that suppresses the action of helper T cells, preventing rejection of transplanted tissue. p. 673

cystic duct (sis'tik dukt) Tube that connects the gallbladder to the common bile duct. p. 712

cytochrome (si'to-krom) Protein within the inner mitochondrial membrane that is an electron carrier in aerobic respiration (electron transport chain). p. 1036 cytocrine secretion (si'to-krin se-kre'shun) Transfer of granules of melanin from melanocytes into adjacent epithelial cells. p. 172

cytokine (si'to-kln) A type of protein secreted by a T lymphocyte that attacks viruses, virally infected cells, and cancer cells. p. 663 cytoplasm (si'to-plazm) The contents of a cell excluding the nucleus and cell membrane. p. 65 cytoplasmic organelle (si'-to-plaz' mic or"gah-nel') A part of a cell that performs a specialized function. p. 65 cytoskeleton (si'to-skel"e-ton) A system of protein tubules and filaments that reinforces a cell's three-dimensional form and provides scaffolding and transport tracts for organelles. p. 72 cytosol (si'to-sol) The fluid matrix of the cytoplasm. p. 72

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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