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Discussion boards and laboratory exercises foster collaboration and provide learning and teaching opportunities. contains these specific areas:

• The Faculty Club gives new and experienced instructors access to a variety of resources to help increase their effectiveness in lecture, discover groups of instructors with similar interests, and find information on teaching techniques and pedagogy. A comprehensive search feature allows instructors to search for information using a variety of criteria.

• The Student Center allows students to search BioCourse for information specific to the course area they are studying, or by using specific topics or keywords. Information is also available for many aspects of student life including tips for studying and test taking, surviving the first year of college, and job and internship searches.

• BioLabs Laboratory instructors often face a special set of challenges. BioLabs helps address those challenges by providing laboratory instructors and coordinators with a source for basic information on suppliers, best practices, professional organizations and lab exchanges.

• Briefing Room is where to go for current news in the life sciences. News feeds from The New York Times, links to prominent journals, commentaries from popular McGraw-Hill authors, and XanEdu journal search service are just a few of the resources you will find here.

• The Quad utilizes a powerful indexing and searching tool to provide a guided review of specific course content. Information is available from a variety of McGraw-Hill sources including textbook material, Essential Study Partner modules, Online Learning Centers, and images from Visual Resource Libraries.

• R&D Center is the opportunity to see what new textbooks, animations, and simulations we're working on and to send us your feedback. You can also learn about other opportunities to review as well as submit ideas for new projects.

Other Supplements Available

The Laboratory Manual for Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology, 0-07-027247-6, by Terry R. Martin is designed to accompany the ninth edition of Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology.

Student Study Guide, 0-07-027248-4, by Nancy A.

Sickels Corbett contains chapter overviews, chapter objectives, focus questions, mastery tests, study activities, and mastery test answers.

The Instructor's Manual, 0-07-027249-2, by Michael F. Peters includes supplemental topics and demonstration ideas for your lectures, suggested readings, critical thinking questions, and teaching strategies. The Instructor's Manual is available through the Instructor Resources of the Online Learning Center.

Microtest Test Item File, 0-07-027252-2, is a computerized test generator free upon request to qualified adopters. A test bank of questions contains matching, true/false, and essay questions.

The test generator contains the complete test item file on CD-ROM.

McGraw-Hill provides 950 Overhead Transparencies, 0-07-027253-0, including fully labeled and unlabeled duplicates of many of them for testing purposes or custom labeling, and some of the tables.

The Visual Resource Library, 0-07-027254-9, is a CD-ROM that contains labeled and unlabeled versions of all line art in the book. You can quickly preview images and incorporate them into PowerPoint or other presentation programs to create your own multimedia presentations. You can also remove and replace labels to suit your own preferences in terminology or level of detail.

PageOut is McGraw-Hill's exclusive tool for creating your own website for your A & P course. It requires no knowledge of coding. Simply type your course information into the templates provided. PageOut is hosted by McGraw-Hill.

Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Manual-Fetal Pig Dissection, 0-07-231199-1, by Terry R. Martin, Kishwaukee College, provides excellent full-color photos of the dissected fetal pig with corresponding labeled art. It includes World Wide Web activities for many chapters.

Web-Based Cat Dissection Review for Human Anatomy and Physiology, 0-07-232157-1, by John Waters, Pennsylvania State University. This online multimedia program contains vivid, high-quality labeled cat dissection photographs. The program helps students easily identify and review the corresponding structures and functions between the cat and the human body.

Dynamic Human Version 2.0, 0-07-235476-3. This set of two interactive CD-ROMs covers each body system and demonstrates clinical concepts, histology, and physiology with animated three-dimensional and other images.

Interactive Histology CD-ROM, 0-07-237308-3, by Bruce Wingerd and Paul Paolini, San Diego State University. This CD containing 135 full-color, highresolution LM images and 35 SEM images of selected tissue sections typically studied in A&P. Each image has labels that can be clicked on or off, has full explanatory legends, offers views at two magnifications, and has links to study questions. The CD also has a glossary with pronunciation guides.

Life Science Animation VRL 2.0, 0-07-248438-1, contains over 200 animations of major biological concepts and processes such as the sliding filament mechanism, active transport, genetic transcription and translation, and other topics that may be difficult for students to visualize.

Life Science Animations 3D Videotape,0-07-290652-9, contains 42 key biological processes that are narrated and animated in vibrant full color with dynamic three-dimensional graphics.

Life Science Animations (LSA) videotape series contains 53 animations on five VHS videocassettes; Chemistry, The Cell, and Energetics, 0-697-25068-7; Cell Division, Heredity, Genetics, Reproduction, and Development, 0-697-25069-5; Animal Biology No. 1, 0-697-25070-9; Animal Biology No. 2, 0-69725071-7; and Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology, 0-697-26600-1. Another available videotape is Physiological Concepts of Life Science, 0-69721512-1.

Atlas to Human Anatomy,0-697-38793-3, by Dennis Strete, McLennan Community College and Christopher H. Creek, takes a systems approach with references to regional anatomy, thereby making it a great complement to your regular course structure, as well as to your laboratory.

Atlas of the Skeletal Muscles, third edition, 0-07290332-5, by Robert and Judith Stone, Suffolk County Community College, is a guide to the structure and function of human skeletal muscles. The illustrations help students locate muscles and understand their actions.

Laboratory Atlas of Anatomy and Physiology, third edition, 0-07-290755-X, by Eder et al., is a full-color atlas containing histology, human skeletal anatomy, human muscular anatomy, dissections, and reference tables.

Coloring Guide to Anatomy and Physiology,0-697-17109-4, by Robert and Judith Stone, Suffolk County Community College, emphasizes learning through the process of color association. The Coloring Guide provides a thorough review of anatomical and physiological concepts.


Any textbook is the result of hard work by a large team. Although we directed the revision, many "behind-the-scenes" people at McGraw-Hill were indispensable to the project. We would like to thank our editorial team of Michael Lange, Marty Lange, Kris Tibbetts, and Pat Hesse; our production team, which included Jayne Klein, Sandy Ludovissy, Wayne Harms, John Leland, Audrey Reiter, Sandy Schnee, Barb Block; and most of all, John Hole, for giving us the opportunity and freedom to continue his classic work. We also thank our wonderfully patient families for their support.

David Shier Jackie Butler Ricki Lewis


We would like to acknowledge the valuable contributions of the reviewers for the ninth edition who read either portions or all of the manuscript as it was being pre pared, and who provided detailed criticisms and ideas for improving the narrative and the illustrations. They include the following:

Marion Alexander

University of Manitoba Angela J. Andrews

Redlands Community College Martha W. Andrus

Grambling State University Timothy A. Ballard

University of North Carolina at Wilmington Brenda C. Blackwelder

Central Piedmont Community College James Bridger

Prince George's Community College Carolyn Burroughs

Bossier Parish Community College Edward W. Carroll

Marquette University Margaret Chad

Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science & Technology Lynda B. Collins

Mississippi College Shirley A. Colvin

Gadsden State Community College Wilfrid DuBois

D'Youville College Sondra Dubowsky

Allen County Community College John Erickson

Ivy Tech State College

Marilyn Ziegler Franklin

Grambling State University Brent M. Graves

Northern Michigan University Mary Guise

Mohawk College of Applied Arts & Technology Michael J. Harman

North Harris Montgomery Community College Alan G. Heath

Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University Julie A. Huggins

Arkansas State University Marsha Jones

Southwestern Community College Beverly W. Juett

Midway College Jeffrey S. Kiggins

Blue Ridge Community College Nancy G. Kincaid

Troy State University Montgomery Alan C. Knowles

Pensacola Christian College Donna A. Kreft

Iowa Central Community College Mary Katherine Lockwood

University of New Hampshire Josephine Macias

West Nebraska Community College

Qian Frances Moss

Des Moines Area Community College Sheila A. Murray

Berkshire Community College Steve Nunez

Sauk Valley Community College Augustine I. Okonkwo

Norfolk State University Amy Griffin Ouchley

University of Louisiana at Monroe David J. Pierotti

Northern Arizona University John Romanowicz

International School of Amsterdam David K. Saunders

Emporia State University Melvin Schmidt

McNeese State University Brian Shmaefsky

Kingwood College Bharathi P. Sudarsanam

Labette Community College Gary Lee Tieben

University of Saint Francis John M. Wakeman

Louisiana Tech University Murray B. Weinstein

Erie Community College, City Campus Eddie L. Whitson

Gadsden State Community College introduction to human anatomy and Physiology

chapter objectives

After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to

1. Define anatomy and physiology and explain how they are related.

2. List and describe the major characteristics of life.

3. List and describe the major requirements of organisms.

4. Define homeostasis and explain its importance to survival.

5. Describe a homeostatic mechanism.

6. Explain the levels of organization of the human body.

7. Describe the locations of the major body cavities.

8. List the organs located in each major body cavity.

9. Name the membranes associated with the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.

10. Name the major organ systems and list the organs associated with each.

11. Describe the general functions of each organ system.

12. Properly use the terms that describe relative positions, body sections, and body regions.

Understanding ^Vo rds append-, to hang something:

appendicular—pertaining to the upper limbs and lower limbs. cardi-, heart: pericardium—

membrane that surrounds the heart. cerebr-, brain: cerebrum—largest portion of the brain. cran-, helmet: cranial—

pertaining to the portion of the skull that surrounds the brain. dors-, back: dorsal—position toward the back of the body.

homeo-, same: homeostasis— maintenance of a stable internal environment. -logy, the study of: physiology—

study of body functions. meta-, change: metabolism— chemical changes that occur within the body. nas-, nose: nasal—pertaining to the nose. orb-, circle: orbital—pertaining to the portion of skull that encircles an eye. pariet-, wall: parietal membrane—membrane that lines the wall of a cavity.

pelv-, basin: pelvic cavity— basin-shaped cavity enclosed by the pelvic bones. peri-, around: pericardial membrane—membrane that surrounds the heart. pleur-, rib: pleural membrane— membrane that encloses the lungs within the rib cage.

-stasis, standing still: homeostasis— maintenance of a stable internal environment. super-, above: superior—

referring to a body part that is located above another. -tomy, cutting: anatomy— study of structure, which often involves cutting or removing body parts.

udith R. had not been wearing a seat belt when the ac-

Jcident occurred because she had to drive only a short distance. She hadn't anticipated the Intoxicated driver In the oncoming lane who swerved right In front of her. Thrown several feet, she now lay near her wrecked car as emergency medical technicians Immobilized her neck and spine. Terrified, Judith tried to assess her condition. She didn't think she was bleeding, and nothing hurt terribly, but she felt a dull ache in the upper right part of her abdomen.

Minutes later, in the emergency room, a nurse gave Judith a quick exam, checking her blood pressure, pulse and breathing rate, and other vital signs and asking questions. These vital signs reflect underlying metabolic activities necessary for life, and they are important in any medical decision. Because Judith's vital signs were stable, and she was alert, knew who and where she was, and didn't seem to have any obvious life-threatening injuries, transfer to a trauma center was not necessary. However, Judith continued to report abdominal pain. The attending physician ordered abdominal X rays, knowing that about a third of patients with abdominal injuries show no outward sign of a problem. As part of standard procedure, Judith received oxygen and intravenous fluids, and a technician took several tubes of blood for testing.

A young physician approached and smiled at Judith as assistants snipped off her clothing. The doctor carefully looked and listened and gently poked and probed. She was looking for cuts; red areas called hematomas where blood vessels had broken; and treadmarks on the skin. Had Judith been wearing her seat belt, the doctor would have checked for characteristic "seat belt contusions," crushed bones or burst hollow organs caused by the twisting constrictions that can occur at the moment of impact when a person wears a seat belt. Finally, the doctor measured the girth of Judith's abdomen. If her abdomen swelled later on, this could indicate a complication, such as infection or internal bleeding.

On the basis of a hematoma in Judith's upper right abdomen and the continued pain coming from this area, the emergency room physician ordered a computed tomography (CT) scan. The scan revealed a lacerated liver. Judith underwent emergency surgery to remove the small torn portion of this vital organ.

When Judith awoke from surgery, a different physician was scanning her chart, looking up frequently. The doctor was studying her medical history for any notation of a disorder that might impede healing. Judith's history of slow blood clotting, he noted, might slow her recovery from surgery. Next, the physician looked and listened. A bluish discoloration of Judith's side might indicate bleeding from her pancreas, kidney, small intestine, or aorta (the artery leading from the heart). A bluish hue near the navel would also be a bad sign, indicating bleeding from the liver or spleen. Her umbilical area was somewhat discolored.

The doctor gently tapped Judith's abdomen and carefully listened to sounds from her digestive tract. A drumlike resonance could mean that a hollow organ had burst, whereas a dull sound might indicate internal bleeding. Judith's abdomen produced dull sounds throughout. Plus, her abdomen had swollen, the pain intensifying when the doctor gently pushed on the area. With Judith's heart rate increasing and blood pressure falling, bleeding from the damaged liver was a definite possibility.

The difference between life and death may depend on a health care professional's understanding of the human body.

Blood tests confirmed the doctor's suspicions. Because blood is a complex mixture of biochemicals, it serves as a barometer of health. Injury or illness disrupts the body's maintenance of specific levels of various biochemicals. This maintenance is called homeostasis. Judith's blood tests revealed that her body had not yet recovered from the accident. Levels of clotting factors produced by her liver were falling, and blood was oozing from her incision, a sign of impaired clotting. Judith's blood glucose level remained elevated, as it had been in the emergency room. Her body was still reacting to the injury.

Based on Judith's blood tests, heart rate, blood pressure, reports of pain, and the physical exam, the doctor sent her back to the operating room. Sure enough, the part of her liver where the injured portion had been removed was still bleeding. When the doctors placed packing material at the wound site, the oozing gradually stopped. Judith returned to the recovery room and, as her condition stabilized, to her room. This time, all went well, and a few days later she was able to go home. The next time she drove, Judith wore her seat belt!

Imagine yourself as one of the health care professionals who helped identify Judith R.'s injury and get her on the road back to health. How would you know what to look, listen, and feel for? How would you place the signs and symptoms into a bigger picture that would suggest the appropriate diagnosis? Nurses, doctors, technicians, and other integral members of health care teams must have a working knowledge of the many intricacies of the human body. How can they begin to understand its astounding complexity? The study of human anatomy and physiology is a daunting, but fascinating and ultimately life-saving, challenge.

The study of the human body has a long history, as this illustration from the second book of De Humani Corporis Fabrica by Andreas Vesalius, issued in 1543, indicates. Note the similarity to the anatomical position (described on page 21).


The study of the human body has a long history, as this illustration from the second book of De Humani Corporis Fabrica by Andreas Vesalius, issued in 1543, indicates. Note the similarity to the anatomical position (described on page 21).

Our understanding of the human body has a long and interesting history (fig. 1.1). It began with our earliest ancestors, who must have been as curious about how their bodies worked as we are today. At first their interests most likely concerned injuries and illnesses, because healthy bodies demand little attention from their owners. Although they did not have emergency rooms to turn to, primitive people certainly suffered from occasional aches and pains, injured themselves, bled, broke bones, developed diseases, and contracted infections.

The change from a hunter-gatherer to an agricultural lifestyle, which occurred from 6,000 to 10,000 years ago in various parts of the world, altered the spectrum of human illnesses. Before agriculture, isolated bands of peoples had little contact with each other, and so infectious diseases did not spread easily, as they do today with our global connections. In addition, these ancient peoples ate wild plants that provided chemicals that combated some parasitic infections.

With agriculture came exposure to pinworms, tapeworms and hookworms in excrement used as fertilizer, and less reliance on the wild plants that offered their protective substances. The rise of urbanization brought even more infectious disease plus malnutrition, as people became sedentary and altered their diets. Several types of evidence chronicle these changes. Tooth decay, for example, affected 3 percent of samples from hunter-gatherers, but 8.7 percent from farmers and 17 percent of samples from city residents! Preserved bones from children reflect increasing malnutrition as life moved from the grasslands to farms to cities. When a child starves or suffers from severe infection, the ends of the long bones stop growing. When health returns, growth resumes, but leaves behind telltale areas of dense bone.

Despite the changes in human health brought about by our own activities, some types of illnesses seem part and parcel of being a member of our species. Arthritis, for example, afflicts millions of people today, but is also evident in fossils of our immediate ancestors from 3 million years ago, from Neanderthals that lived 100,000 years ago, and from a preserved "ice man" from 5,300 years ago.

The rise of medical science paralleled human prehistory and history. At first, healers relied heavily on superstitions and notions about magic. However, as they tried to help the sick, these early medical workers began to discover useful ways of examining and treating the human body. They observed the effects of injuries, noticed how wounds healed, and examined dead bodies to determine the causes of death. They also found that certain herbs and potions could sometimes be used to treat coughs, headaches, and other common problems. These long-ago physicians began to wonder how these substances, the forerunners of modern drugs, affected body functions in general.

People began asking more questions and seeking answers, setting the stage for the development of modern medical science. Techniques for making accurate observations and performing careful experiments evolved, and knowledge of the human body expanded rapidly.

This new knowledge of the structure and function of the human body required a new, specialized language. Early medical providers devised many terms to name body parts, describe their locations, and explain their functions. These terms, most of which originated from Greek and Latin, formed the basis for the language of anatomy and physiology. (A list of some of the modern medical and applied sciences appears on pages 24 and 25.)

O What factors probably stimulated an early interest in the human body?

How did human health change as lifestyle changed?

What kinds of activities helped promote the development of modern medical science?

Shier-Butler-Lewis: I I. Levels of Organization I 1. Introduction to Human I I © The McGraw-Hill

Human Anatomy and Anatomy and Physiology Companies, 2001

Physiology, Ninth Edition

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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