Basal Nuclei

The basal nuclei (basal ganglia) are masses of gray matter located deep within the cerebral hemispheres. They are called the caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the globus pallidus, and they develop from the anterior portion of the forebrain (fig. 11.19). The neuron cell bodies that the basal nuclei contain relay motor impulses originating in the cerebral cortex and passing into the brain stem and spinal cord. The basal nuclei produce most of the inhibitory neurotrans-mitter dopamine. Impulses from the basal nuclei normally inhibit motor functions, thus controlling certain muscular activities. Clinical Application 11.5 discusses Parkinson disease, in which neurons in the basal nuclei degenerate.

H What is hemisphere dominance?

What are the functions of the nondominant hemisphere?

Distinguish between short-term and long-term memory. What is the function of the basal nuclei?

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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