Arteries to the Neck Head and Brain

Branches of the subclavian and common carotid arteries supply blood to structures within the neck, head, and brain (figs. 15.46 and 15.47). The main divisions of the subclavian artery to these regions are the vertebral, thyro-cervical, and costocervical arteries. The common carotid artery communicates with these regions by means of the internal and external carotid arteries.

The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries in the base of the neck near the tips of the lungs. They pass upward through the foramina of the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae and enter the skull by way of the foramen magnum. Along their paths, these vessels supply blood to vertebrae and to their associated ligaments and muscles.

Within the cranial cavity, the vertebral arteries unite to form a single basilar artery. This vessel passes along the ventral brain stem and gives rise to branches leading to the pons, midbrain, and cerebellum. The basilar artery terminates by dividing into two posterior cerebral arteries that supply portions of the occipital and temporal lobes of the cerebrum. The posterior cerebral arteries also help form the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) at the base of the brain, which connects the vertebral artery and internal carotid artery systems (fig. 15.48). The union of these systems provides alternate pathways

Phrenic a.

Celiac a. Hepatic a.

Right gastric a.

Suprarenal a,

Renal a. Gonadal a

Lumbar a.

Middle sacral a.

Abdominal aorta

Hepatic a. Renal a.

Phrenic a.

Lumbar a.

Middle sacral a.

Abdominal aorta

Hepatic a. Renal a.

Thyrocervical Angiogram

Abdominal aorta

Splenic a. Left gastric a.

Superior mesenteric a.

Inferior mesenteric a.

Common iliac a.

Branches from inferior mesenteric a.

Common iliac a.

Figure 15.45

(a) Abdominal aorta and its major branches. (b) Angiogram (radiograph) of the abdominal aorta.

Branches from inferior mesenteric a.

Common iliac a.

Abdominal aorta

Splenic a. Left gastric a.

Superior mesenteric a.

Inferior mesenteric a.

Common iliac a.

Figure 15.45

(a) Abdominal aorta and its major branches. (b) Angiogram (radiograph) of the abdominal aorta.

through which blood can reach brain tissues in the event of an arterial occlusion.

The thyrocervical (thi"ro-ser'vi-kal) arteries are short vessels that give off branches at the thyrocervical axis to the thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, larynx, trachea, esophagus, and pharynx, as well as to various muscles in the neck, shoulder, and back. The costocervical (kos"to-ser'vi-kal) arteries, which are the third vessels to branch from the subclavians, carry blood to muscles in the neck, back, and thoracic wall.

The left and right common carotid arteries ascend deeply within the neck on either side. At the level of the upper laryngeal border, they divide to form the internal and external carotid arteries.

The external carotid artery courses upward on the side of the head, giving off branches to structures in the neck, face, jaw, scalp, and base of the skull. The main vessels that originate from this artery include the following:

1. Superior thyroid artery to the hyoid bone, larynx, and thyroid gland.

2. Lingual artery to the tongue, muscles of the tongue, and salivary glands beneath the tongue.

3. Facial artery to the pharynx, palate, chin, lips, and nose.

4. Occipital artery to the scalp on the back of the skull, the meninges, the mastoid process, and various muscles in the neck.

5. Posterior auricular artery to the ear and the scalp over the ear.

The external carotid artery terminates by dividing into maxillary and superficial temporal arteries. The maxillary artery supplies blood to the teeth, gums, jaws, cheek, nasal cavity, eyelids, and meninges. The temporal artery extends to the parotid salivary gland and to various surface regions of the face and scalp.

The internal carotid artery follows a deep course upward along the pharynx to the base of the skull. Entering the cranial cavity, it provides the major blood supply to the brain. The major branches of the internal carotid artery include the following:

1. Ophthalmic artery to the eyeball and to various muscles and accessory organs within the orbit.

2. Posterior communicating artery that forms part of the circle of Willis.

Shier-Butler-Lewis: IV. Transport 15. Cardiovascular System © The McGraw-Hill

Human Anatomy and Companies, 2001

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Responses

  • Amanuel Asmara
    What artery supplies the chin/jaw region of the head with blood?
    4 years ago
  • Jose
    What blood vessels carry blood to the head and brain?
    3 years ago

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