Absorption and Excretion

Organs in several systems absorb nutrients and oxygen and excrete wastes. The organs of the digestive (di-jestctiv) system (fig. 1.15), for example, receive foods from the outside. Then they break down food molecules into simpler forms that can pass through cell membranes and thus be absorbed into the internal environment. Materials that are not absorbed are eliminated by being

Shier-Butler-Lewis: I. Levels of Organization 1. Introduction to Human © The McGraw-Hill

Human Anatomy and Anatomy and Physiology Companies, 2001

Physiology, Ninth Edition

Vertebra

Right kidney

Aorta

Inferior vena cava

Pancreas

Large intestine

Liver

Gallbladder Duodenum Visceral peritoneum Peritoneal cavity Parietal peritoneum

Spinal cord

Spinal cord

Transverse Section The The Kidney

Plane of section

Anterior

Figure 1.10

A transverse section through the abdomen (superior view). Note that the large intestine is labeled twice.

Anterior

Plane of section

Left kidney

Spleen

Small intestine

Large intestine Rib

Costal cartilage Stomach

Left kidney

Wasser Bauchraum Ursachen

Figure 1.10

A transverse section through the abdomen (superior view). Note that the large intestine is labeled twice.

Figure 1.11

The integumentary system covers the body.

Integumentary system

Figure 1.11

The integumentary system covers the body.

Skeletal system
Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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