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abdominal (ab-dom'i-nal) Pertaining to the portion of the body between the diaphragm and the pelvis. p. 24 abdominal cavity (ab-dom'i-nal kav'i-te) The space between the diaphragm and the pelvic inlet that contains the abdominal viscera. p. 12 abdominopelvic cavity (ab-dom"i-no-pel'vik kav'i-te) The space between the diaphragm and the lower portion of the trunk of the body. p. 11 abduction (ab-duk'shun) Movement of a body part away from the midline. p. 276 absorption (ab-sorp'shun) The taking in of substances by cells or membranes. p. 5 accessory organ (ak-ses'o-re or'gan) Organ that supplements the functions of other organs; accessory organs of the digestive and reproductive systems. p. 478 accommodation (ah-kom"o-da'shun)

Adjustment of the lens for close vision. p. 485

acetone (as'e-ton) One of the ketone bodies produced as a result of the oxidation of fats. p. 873 acetylcholine (as"e-til-ko'len) A type of neurotransmitter, which is a biochemical secreted at the axon ends of many neurons. It transmits nerve impulses across synapses. p. 304 acetylcholinesterase (as"e-til-ko"lin-es'ter-as) An enzyme that catalyzes breakdown of acetylcholine. p. 306 acetyl coenzyme A (as'e-til ko-en'zlm) An intermediate compound produced during the oxidation of carbohydrates and fats. p. 117

acid (as'id) A substance that ionizes in water to release hydrogen ions. p. 47 acid-base buffer system (as'id-bas buf'er sis'tem) A pair of chemicals, one a weak acid, the other a weak base, that resists pH changes. p. 868

acidosis (as"i-do'sis) A relative increase in the acidity of body fluids. p. 48 acromial (ah-kro'me-al) Pertaining to the shoulder. p. 24 ACTH Adrenocorticotropic hormone. p. 517 actin (ak'tin) A protein in a muscle fiber that, together with myosin, is responsible for contraction and relaxation. p. 300 action potential (ak'shun po-ten'shal) The sequence of electrical changes occurring when a nerve cell membrane is exposed to a stimulus that exceeds its threshold. p. 376 activation energy (ak"ti-va'shun en'er-je) Energy required to initiate a chemical reaction. p. 112 active site (ak'tiv sit) Region of an enzyme molecule that temporarily combines with a substrate. p. 112 active transport (ak'tiv trans'port) Process that requires an expenditure of energy to move a substance across a cell membrane; usually moved against the concentration gradient. p. 89 adaptation (ad"ap-ta'shun) Adjustment to environmental conditions. p. 536 adduction (ah-duk'shun) Movement of a body part toward the midline. p. 276 adenoids (ad'ei-noids) The pharyngeal tonsils located in the nasopharynx. p. 692 adenosine diphosphate (ah-den'o-sein di-fos'fait) Molecule produced when the terminal phosphate is lost from a molecule of adenosine triphosphate; ADP. p. 114 adenosine triphosphate (ah-den'o-sein tri-fos'fait) Organic molecule that stores energy and releases energy for use in cellular processes; ATP. p. 77 adenylate cyclase (ah-den'i-lat si'klas)

An enzyme that is activated when certain hormones combine with receptors on cell membranes, causing ATP to release two phosphates and circularize, forming cyclic AMP. p. 508 ADH Antidiuretic hormone. p. 518 adipose tissue (ad'i-pos tish'u) Fat-storing tissue. p. 154

adolescence (ad"o-les'ens) Period of life between puberty and adulthood. p. 966 ADP Adenosine diphosphate. p. 114 adrenal cortex (ah-dre'nal kor'teks) The outer portion of the adrenal gland. p. 525 adrenal gland (ah-dre'nal gland) Endocrine gland located on the superior portion of each kidney. p. 524 adrenaline (ah-dren'ah-lin) Epinephrine. A hormone produced by the adrenal glands. p. 525

adrenal medulla (ah-dre'nal me-dul'ah) The inner portion of the adrenal gland. p. 525 adrenergic fiber (ad"ren-er'jik fi'ber) A nerve fiber that secretes norepinephrine at the axon terminal. p. 440 adrenocorticotropic hormone (ah-dre"no-kor"te-ko-trop'ik hor'mon) Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that stimulates activity in the adrenal cortex; ACTH. p. 517 aerobic respiration (a"er-ob'ik res"pï-

ra'shun) Phase of cellular respiration that requires oxygen. p. 117 afferent (af'er-ent) Conducting toward a center. For example, an afferent arteriole conveys blood to the glomerulus of a nephron within the kidney. p. 823 agglutination (ah-gloo"ti-na'shun) Clumping of blood cells in response to a reaction between an antibody and an antigen. p. 571 agranulocyte (a-gran'u-lo-slt) A nongranular leukocyte. p. 553 albumin (al-bu'min) A plasma protein that helps regulate the osmotic concentration of blood. p. 560 aldosterone (al-dos'ter-on) A hormone, secreted by the adrenal cortex, that regulates sodium and potassium ion concentrations and water balance. p. 507 alimentary canal (al"i-men'tar-e kah-nal') The tubular portion of the digestive tract that leads from the mouth to the anus. p. 687

alkaline (al'kah-lln) Pertaining to or having the properties of a base or alkali; basic. p. 48

alkaline tide (al'kah-lin tld) An increase in the blood concentration of bicarbonate ions following a meal. p. 704 alkaloid (al'kah-loid) A group of organic substances that are usually bitter in taste and have toxic effects. p. 467 alkalosis (al"kah-lo'sis) A relative increase in the alkalinity of body fluids. p. 48 allantois (ah-lan'to-is) A structure that appears during embryonic development and functions in the formation of umbilical blood vessels. p. 953 allele (ah-lel) Different forms of a gene. p. 983

allergen (al'er-jen) A foreign substance capable of stimulating an allergic reaction. p. 672

all-or-none response (al'or-nun' re-spons') Phenomenon in which a muscle fiber completely contracts when it is exposed to a stimulus of threshold strength. p. 311 alpha receptor (al'fah re-sep'tor) Receptor on effector cell membrane that combines with epinephrine or norepinephrine. p. 442 alphatocopherol (al"fah-to-kof'er-ol)

Vitamin E. p. 752 alveolar duct (al-ve'o-lar dukt) Fine tube that carries air to an air sac of the lungs. p. 788 alveolar pore (al-ve'o-lar por) Minute opening in the wall of an air sac which permits air to pass from one alveolus to another. p. 805 alveolar process (al-ve'o-lar pros'es) Projection on the border of the jaw in which the bony sockets of the teeth are located. p. 220 alveolus (al-ve'o-lus) An air sac of a lung; a saclike structure (pl., alveoli) p. 788 amacrine cell (am'ah-krin sel) A retinal neuron whose fibers pass laterally between other retinal cells. p. 487 amine (am'in) A type of nitrogen-containing organic compound, including the hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla. p. 505

amino acid (ah-me'no as'id) An organic compound of relatively small molecular size that contains an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH); the structural unit of a protein molecule. p. 54 amniocentesis (am"ne-o-sen-te'sis) A

procedure in which a sample of amniotic fluid is removed through the abdominal wall of a pregnant woman. Fetal cells in it are cultured and examined to check the chromosome complement. p. 991 amnion (am'ne-on) An extra embryonic membrane that encircles a developing fetus and contains amniotic fluid. p. 950 amniotic cavity (am"ne-ot'ik kav'i-te) Fluid-filled space enclosed by the amnion. p. 950 amniotic fluid (am"ne-ot'ik floo'id) Fluid within the amniotic cavity that surrounds the developing fetus. p. 950 ampulla (am-pul'ah) An expansion at the end of each semicircular canal that contains a crista ampullaris. p. 476

amylase (am'i-las) An enzyme that hydrolyzes starch. p. 695 anabolism (ah-nab'o-liz"em) Metabolic process by which larger molecules are synthesized from smaller ones; anabolic metabolism. p. 110 anaerobic respiration (an-a"er-ob'ik res"pi-ra'shun) Phase of cellular respiration that occurs in the absence of oxygen. p. 117 anal canal (a'nal kah-nal') The most distal two or three inches of the large intestine that open to the outside as the anus. p. 724 anaphase (an'ah-faz) Stage in mitosis when replicated chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles of the cell. p. 95 anastomosis (ah-nas"to-mo'sis) A union of nerve fibers or blood vessels to form a network. p. 639 anatomical position (an"ah-tom'i-kal po-zish'un) A body posture with the body erect, the face forward, the arms at the sides with the palms facing forward, and the toes pointing straight ahead. p. 21 anatomy (ah-nat'o-me) Branch of science dealing with the form and structure of body parts. p. 4 androgen (an'dro-jen) A male sex hormone such as testosterone. p. 897 anemia (ah-ne'me-ah) A condition of red blood cell or hemoglobin deficiency. p. 553 aneuploid (an'u-ploid) A cell with one or more extra or missing chromosomes. p. 991 aneurysm (an'u-rizm) A saclike expansion of a blood vessel wall. p. 153 angiotensin (an"je-o-ten'sin) A

vasoconstricting biochemical that is produced when blood flow to the kidneys is reduced, elevating blood pressure. p. 528 angiotensinogen (an"je-o-ten-sin'o-jen) A serum globulin the liver secretes that renin converts to angiotensin. p. 528 anion (an'i-on) An atom carrying a negative charge due to an extra electron. p. 374 anorexia nervosa (an"o-rek'se-ah ner-vo'sa) Disorder caused by the fear of becoming obese; includes loss of appetite and inability to maintain a normal minimum body weight. p. 768 anoxia (an-ok'se-ah) Abnormally low oxygen concentration of the tissues. p. 813 antagonist (an-tag'o-nist) A muscle that acts in opposition to a prime mover. p. 319 antebrachium (an"te-bra'ke-um) The forearm. p. 24 antecubital (an"te-ku'bi-tal) The region in front of the elbow joint. p. 24 anterior (an-te're-or) Pertaining to the front. p. 21

anterior pituitary (an-te're-or pi-tu'i-tar"e)

The front lobe of the pituitary gland. p. 513 antibody (an'ti-bod"e) A protein that B cells of the immune system produce in response to the presence of a nonself antigen; it reacts with the antigen. p. 556 anticoagulant (an"ti-ko-ag'u-lant) A

biochemical that inhibits blood clotting. p. 568

anticodon (an"ti-ko'don) Three contiguous nucleotides of a transfer RNA molecule that are complementary to a specific mRNA codon. p. 127 antidiuretic hormone (an"ti-di"u-ret'ik hor'mon) Hormone released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland that enhances the conservation of water by the kidneys; ADH. p. 518 antigen (an'ti-jen) A chemical that stimulates cells to produce antibodies. p. 571 antigen-binding-site (an'ti-jen-bln'ding-sit) Specialized ends of antibodies that bind specific antigens. p. 666 antigen-presenting cell (an'tii-jen-pre-sen'ting cel) The cell that displays the antigen to the cells of the immune system so they can defend the body against that particular antigen. p. 662 antioxidant (an'ti-ok'si-dant) A substance that inhibits oxidation of another substance. p. 751 antithrombin (an"tii-throm'bin) A substance that inhibits the action of thrombin and thus inhibits blood clotting. p. 568 anus (a'nus) Inferior outlet of the digestive tube. p. 724 aorta (a-or'tah) Major systemic artery that receives blood from the left ventricle. p. 622 aortic body (a-or'tik bod'e) A structure associated with the wall of the aorta that contains a group of chemoreceptors. p. 622 aortic sinus (a-or'tik si'nus) Swelling in the wall of the aorta that contains baroreceptors. p. 622 aortic valve (a-or'tik valv) Flaplike structures in the wall of the aorta near its origin that prevent blood from returning to the left ventricle of the heart. p. 585 apocrine gland (ap'o-krin gland) A type of sweat gland that responds during periods of emotional stress. p. 179 aponeurosis (ap"o-nu-ro'sis) A sheet of connective tissue by which certain muscles are attached to adjacent muscles. p. 298 apoptosis (ap"o-to'-sis) Programmed cell death. p. 970 appendicular (ap"en-dik'u-lar) Pertaining to the arms or legs. p. 10 appendix (ah-pen'diks) A small, tubular appendage that extends outward from the cecum of the large intestine; vermiform appendix. p. 723 aqueous humor (a'kwe-us hu'mor) Watery fluid that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. p. 486 arachnoid granulation (ah-rak'noid gran"u-la'shun) Fingerlike structure that projects from the subarachnoid space of the meninges into blood-filled dural sinuses and reabsorbs cerebrospinal fluid. p. 398 arachnoid mater (ah-rak'noid ma'ter) Delicate, weblike middle layer of the meninges. p. 397 arbor vitae (ar'bor vi'ta) Treelike pattern of white matter in a section of cerebellum. p. 424

Shier-Butler-Lewis: I Back Matter I Glossary I I © The McGraw-Hill

Human Anatomy and Companies, 2001

Physiology, Ninth Edition areola (ah-re'o-lah) Pigmented region surrounding the nipple of the mammary gland or breast. p. 919 areolar tissue (ah-re'o-lar tish'u) Connective tissue composed mainly of fibers. p. 153 arrector pili muscle (ah-rek'tor pil'i mus'l) Smooth muscle in the skin associated with a hair follicle. p. 177 arrhythmia (ah-rith'me-ah) Abnormal heart action characterized by a loss of rhythm. p. 600

arteriole (ar-te're-ol) A small branch of an artery that communicates with a capillary network. p. 602 arteriosclerosis (ar-te"re-o-skle-ro'sis)

Condition in which the walls of arteries thicken and lose their elasticity; hardening of the arteries. p. 608 artery (ar'ter-e) A vessel that transports blood away from the heart. p. 602 arthritis (ar-thri'tis) Joint inflammation. p. 290

articular cartilage (ar-tik'u-lar kar'ti-lij) Hyaline cartilage that covers the ends of bones in synovial joints. p. 196 articulation (ar-tik"u-la'shun) The joining of structures at a joint. p. 271 ascending colon (ah-send'ing ko'lon) Portion of the large intestine that passes upward on the right side of the abdomen from the cecum to the lower edge of the liver. p. 723

ascending tract (ah-send'ing trakt) Group of nerve fibers in the spinal cord that transmits sensory impulses upward to the brain. p. 404 ascites (ah-si'tez) Serous fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. p. 770 ascorbic acid (as-kor'bik as'id) One of the water-soluble vitamins; vitamin C. p. 756 assimilation (ah-sim"i-la'shun) The action of chemically changing absorbed substances. p. 5

association area (ah-so"se-a'shun a're-ah) Region of the cerebral cortex related to memory, reasoning, judgment, and emotional feelings. p. 416 astigmatism (ah-stig'mah-tizm) Visual defect due to errors in refraction caused by abnormal curvatures in the surface of the cornea or lens. p. 490 astrocyte (as'tro-slt) A type of neuroglial cell that connects neurons to blood vessels. p. 370

atherosclerosis (ath"er-o-skle-ro'sis) Condition in which fatty substances accumulate on the inner linings of arteries. p. 566

atmospheric pressure (at"mos-fer'ik presh'ur) Pressure exerted by the weight of the air; about 760 mm of mercury at sea level. p. 742

atom (at'om) Smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element. p. 9 atomic number (ah-tom'ik num'ber) Number equal to the number of protons in an atom of an element. p. 40

atomic weight (ah-tom'ik wat) Number approximately equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in an atom of an element. p. 40 ATP Adenosine triphosphate, the biological energy molecule. p. 77 ATPase Enzyme that causes ATP molecules to release the energy stored in the terminal phosphate bonds. p. 306 atrial natriuretic peptide (a'tre-al na"tre-u-ret'ik pep'tld) A family of polypeptide hormones that increase sodium excretion. p. 835

atrioventricular bundle (a"tre-o-ven-trik'u-lar bun'dl) Group of specialized fibers that conduct impulses from the atrioventricular node to the ventricular muscle of the heart; A-V bundle. p. 595 atrioventricular node (a"tre-o-ven-trik'u-lar nod) Specialized mass of cardiac muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum of the heart; functions in transmitting cardiac impulses from the sinoatrial node to the ventricular walls; A-V node. p. 595

atrioventricular orifice (a"tre-o-ven-trik'u-lar or'i-fis) Opening between the atrium and the ventricle on one side of the heart. p. 584

atrioventricular sulcus (a"tre-o-ven-trik'u-lar sul'kus) A groove on the surface of the heart that marks the division between an atrium and a ventricle. p. 584 atrioventricular valve (a"tre-o-ven-trik'u-lar valv) Cardiac valve located between an atrium and a ventricle. p. 584 atrium (a'tre-um) A chamber of the heart that receives blood from veins (pl., atria). p. 584

atrophy (at'ro-fe) A wasting away or decrease in size of an organ or tissue. p. 314

audiometer (aw"de-om'ei-ter) An instrument used to measure the acuity of hearing. p. 497

auditory (aw'di-to"re) Pertaining to the ear or to the sense of hearing. p. 469 auditory ossicle (aw'di-to"re os'i-kl) A bone of the middle ear. p. 469 auditory tube (aw'di-to"re toob) The tube that connects the middle ear cavity to the pharynx; eustachian tube. p. 470 auricle (aw'ri-kl) An earlike structure; the portion of the heart that forms the wall of an atrium. p. 584 autoantibody (aw"to-an'ti-bod"e) An antibody produced against oneself. p. 675

autocrine (aw'to-krin) A hormone that acts on the same cell that secreted it. p. 504 autoimmunity (aw"to-i-mu'ni-te) An immune response against a person's own tissues; autoallergy. p. 672 autonomic nervous system (aw"to-nom'ik ner'vus sis'tem) Portion of the nervous system that controls the actions of the viscera. p. 425

autoregulation (aw"to-reg"u-la'shun) Ability of an organ or tissue to maintain a constant blood flow in spite of changing arterial blood pressure. p. 834 autosome (aw'to-som) A chromosome other than a sex chromosome. p. 980 A-V bundle (bun'dl) A group of fibers that conduct cardiac impulses from the A-V node to the Purkinje fibers; bundle of His. p. 595

A-V node (nod) Atrioventricular node. p. 595 axial (ak'se-al) Pertaining to the head, neck, and trunk. p. 10 axial skeleton (ak'se-al skel'e-ton) Portion of the skeleton that supports and protects the organs of the head, neck, and trunk. p. 210

axillary (ak'sï-ler"e) Pertaining to the armpit. p. 24

axon (ak'son) A nerve fiber that conducts a nerve impulse away from a neuron cell body. p. 363 axonal transport (ak'so-nal trans'port)

Transport of substances from the neuron cell body to an axon terminal. p. 364

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