Figure D.1 illustrates the chemical reactions of glycolysis. In the early steps of this metabolic pathway, the original glucose molecule is altered by the addition of phosphate groups (phosphorylation) and by the rearrangement of its atoms. ATP supplies the phosphate groups and the energy to drive these reactions. The result is a molecule of fructose bound to two phosphate groups (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate). This molecule is split through two separate reactions into two 3-carbon molecules (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate). Since each of these is converted to pyruvic acid, the following reactions, 1 through 5, must be counted twice to account for a single glucose molecule.
1. An inorganic phosphate group is added to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to form 1,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid, releasing two hydrogen atoms, to be used in ATP synthesis, described later.
2. 1,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid is changed to 3-phosphoglyceric acid. As this occurs, some energy in the form of a high-energy phosphate is transferred from the 1,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid to an ADP molecule, phosphorylating the ADP to ATP.
3. A slight alteration of 3-phosphoglyceric acid forms 2-phosphoglyceric acid.
4. A change in 2-phosphoglyceric acid converts it into phosphoenolpyruvic acid.
5. Finally, a high-energy phosphate is transferred from the phosphoenolpyruvic acid to an ADP molecule, phosphorylating it to ATP. A molecule of pyruvic acid remains.
Overall, one molecule of glucose is ultimately broken down to two molecules of pyruvic acid. Also, a total of four hydrogen atoms are released (step a), and four ATP molecules form (two in step b and two in step e). However, because two molecules of ATP are used early in glycolysis, there is a net gain of only two ATP molecules during this phase of cellular respiration.
In the presence of oxygen, each pyruvic acid molecule is oxidized to an acetyl group, which then combines with a molecule of coenzyme A (obtained from the vitamin pantothenic acid) to form acetyl coenzyme A. As this occurs, two more hydrogen atoms are released for each molecule of acetyl coen-zyme A formed. The acetyl coenzyme A is then broken down by means of the citric acid cycle, which figure D.2 illustrates.
Because obtaining energy for cellular metabolism is vital, disruptions in glycolysis or the reactions that follow it can devastate health. Clinical Application 4.1 tells how medical sleuths traced a boy's unusual combination of symptoms to a block in glycolysis.
An acetyl coenzyme A molecule enters the citric acid cycle by combining with a molecule of ox-aloacetic acid to form citric acid. As citric acid is produced, coenzyme A is released and thus can be used again to form acetyl coenzyme A from pyruvic acid. The citric acid is then changed by a series of reactions back into oxaloacetic acid, and the cycle may repeat.
Steps in the citric acid cycle release carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms. More specifically, for each glucose molecule metabolized in the presence of oxygen, two molecules of acetyl coenzyme A enter the citric acid cycle. The cycle releases four carbon dioxide molecules and sixteen hydrogen atoms. At the same time, two more molecules of ATP form.
The released carbon dioxide dissolves in the cytoplasm and leaves the cell, eventually entering the bloodstream. Most of the hydrogen atoms released from the citric acid cycle, and those released during glycolysis and during the formation of acetyl coenzyme A, supply electrons used to produce ATP.
Note that in figures D.1 and D.2 various metabolic reactions release hydrogen atoms. The electrons of these hydrogen atoms contain much of the energy associated with the chemical bonds of the original glucose molecule. To keep this energy in a usable form, these hydrogen atoms, with their high energy electrons, are passed in pairs to hydrogen carriers. One of these carriers is NAD+ (nicotinamide
Shier-Butler-Lewis: I Back Matter I Appendix D: A Closer Look I I © The McGraw-Hill
Human Anatomy and at Cellular Companies, 2001
Physiology, Ninth Edition Respiration/Nucleic Acids oooooo
(py-ccccco nM/U Fructose-6-phosphate
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.