Grallina cyanoleuca

SPECIES ACCOUNT

Physical characteristics: The Australian magpie-lark has a black and white body. The male has a black back, chest, and face, with a white stripe above the eye. The female's face is all white. Both have white markings on their predominantly black wings. The birds' legs are exceptionally long, and adults have white eyes and beaks. Juveniles of the species have plumage coloring similar to adults, but their eyes and bills are white. Adult magpie-larks are 10 to 12 inches (25 to 30 centimeters) in length and weigh an average of 3 to 4 ounces (80 to 115 grams).

Australian magpie-lark males and females take part in nest building, egg incubation, and in feeding their nestlings. (Jen and Des Bartlett/Bruce Coleman Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Geographic range: The Australian magpie-lark is found throughout Australia (except in desert areas) and in southern New Guinea, Timor, and Lord Howe Island.

Habitat: Australian magpie-larks are highly adaptable birds, and make their home in a wide variety of habitats both near and far from people, including urban, agricultural, and residential areas. When they dwell in forests, it is usually near the edge or in a clearing where there is open space to forage. They choose nest-building locations where there is access to water and therefore mud.

Diet: Magpie-larks forage at ground level for insects, insect larvae, earthworms, and freshwater snails. They will also eat at backyard feeders.

Behavior and reproduction: Like other members of the family, the Australian magpie-lark builds a cup-shaped mud nest lined with soft grasses and feathers. Male and female magpie-larks are monogamous, and usually stay together throughout their lifespan, breeding each season as a pair. If a male leaves a female after mating for any reason, the female will abandon the nest.

Australian magpie-larks are biparental, meaning that both male and female take part in nest building, egg incubation, and in feeding their nestlings. The female lays a clutch of three to five oval-shaped white-to-pink eggs speckled with brown.

Studies of Australian magpie-lark breeding behavior have found that those pairs of birds who have bred together successfully in previous seasons will raise more fledglings in subsequent seasons than other newly-mated pairs. Researchers attribute this to the fact that established magpie-lark "couples" start breeding earlier in the season, allowing them to fledge multiple broods.

Magpie-larks aggressively defend their nest and surrounding territory, and have been known to attack other birds, animals, humans, and even images of themselves in mirrors or other reflective surfaces when they felt their nest was threatened. Human attacks are rare.

Incubation of eggs takes up to eighteen days, and the young birds fledge about three weeks after hatching. Young birds, and those adults who aren't paired with a mate, travel in large flocks that move northward in fall and winter and south in spring and summer.

Australian magpie-larks and people: The Australian magpie-lark, called the peewee by many Australians because of their "pee-o-wit" call, are not considered agricultural or residential pests. In agricultural areas their presence is often encouraged, as they feed on disease-carrying freshwater snails that can infect sheep and cattle.

Conservation status: Australian magpie-larks are plentiful and not considered threatened. ■

FOR MORE INFORMATION

Books:

Simpson, Ken, Nicolas Day, and Peter Trusler. Birds of Australia Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Simpson, Ken, and Nicolas Day. Field Guide to the Birds of Australia, 4th ed. Ringwood, Australia: Viking O'Neil, 1993.

Periodicals:

Davidson, Steve. "For These Birds, Fidelity's a Lark." Ecos (April-June 2000): 36.

Web sites:

"Magpie-Lark." Australian Museum. http://www.amonline.net.au/ factsheets/magpie_lark.htm (accessed on June 14, 2004).

WOODSWALLOWS Artamidae

Class: Aves

Order: Passeriformes

Family: Artamidae

Number of species: 11 species

CHAPTER

phylum class subclass order monotypic order suborder family

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Woodswallows are small, robust, mostly nomadic (wandering) birds. They have a stout body, soft plumage (feathers), brush-tipped tongue, short neck, short legs, weak-grasping feet, short toes, and a short, stumpy tail that is sometimes white-tipped. The bill is blue-gray, long, slightly curved, and sharply pointed with a bluish black tip. Wings are long, strong, and pointed (such that when flying they look like a common starling).

Their generally dullish looking colors consist of mostly grays, with mixtures of white, black, or reddish on the upper parts of the body, and white below, with several species having also russet colors. Woodswallows also have patches of powder down feathers. Unlike other feathers, powder down feathers crumble at the tips into a soft powder that the birds use for grooming. Males and females look alike in appearance. Adults are 4.7 to 7.9 inches (13 to 20 centimeters) long and weigh between 0.5 and 1.6 ounces (13 and 46 grams).

GEOGRAPHIC RANGE

Woodswallows are found in Australia and Tasmania, throughout the islands of the South Pacific region, Southeast Asia, and across south China to India and Sri Lanka.

HABITAT

This family lives in a wide variety of habitats including open forests, woodlands, scrublands, mangroves (groups of tropical evergreen trees located near tidal coasts), edges of forests, orchards, urban areas, and clearings. In fact, they prefer any habitat that contains plenty of insects.

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