For More Information Books

del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, eds. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 4, Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, 1997.


Pigeons and doves are unique among birds in that adults produce a special "crop milk" to feed their young. Crop milk is named after the crop, a pouch-like organ in the adult throat where the milk is produced. Crop milk is a soft, nutritious, cheesy substance. Because of crop milk, pigeon and dove parents are able to feed their young even when there is little food available, as long as they themselves are fat and healthy. Crop milk is produced by both parents.

Perrins, Christopher, ed. Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, 2003.

Web sites:

"Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)." The Internet Bird Collection. (accessed on June 12, 2004).

"Order Columbiformes (Doves and Pigeons)." The University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Animal Diversity Web. http://animaldiversity. Columbiformes (accessed on June 12, 2004).

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