Nuthatches and wall creepers fly in an up-and-down motion. Most birds are not migratory. Adult pairs are monogamous (muh-NAH-guh-mus; having one mate) and occupy a permanent territory throughout their lives. Nests are made in natural cavities in trees or in cavities that were dug out and abandoned by woodpeckers. When previously used nests are used, they will often narrow the opening with mud, dung (solid excrement of animals), and other sticky substances in order to keep predators and competitors out. Some nests are made in rock cavities with substances such as bark flakes and leaves. Many sittellas build open nests in trees rather than using holes. Females lay four to ten white eggs that are flecked with brown or red. Only females sit on the eggs, but both males and females feed the chicks. Most birds produce only one brood each year.
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