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The standards developing organization is the organization that currently maintains the standard. CPT indicates Current Procedural Terminology; GTIN, global trade item number; NDC, National Drug Code; UMLS, Unified Medical Language System; FIPS, Federal Information Processing Standards.

*The National Library of Medicine distributes SNOMED-CT for free only as part of the UMLS.

tThe UMLS requires a signed license agreement to use. •FIPS 5-2 was created in 1987, FIPS 6-4 in 1990, and FIPS 10-4 in 1995. §Only the two-character country codes in ISO 3166-1 are free. The rest of ISO 3166 (including the three-character and three-digit country codes in ISO 3166-1, ISO 3166-2, and ISO 3166-3) require a license fee.

HMETAR existed before 1995 but took its current form and became a U.S. standard that year.

and susceptibility tests of culture isolates (e.g., the test that determines an organism's sensitivity to oxacillin).

It will be some time before clinical information systems in hospitals are capable of sending LOINC-encoded data to a biosurveillance organization. Until then, you will have to create or purchase an adaptor that maps each hospital's homegrown codes to LOINC if you wish to integrate laboratory data from multiple hospitals in a region.

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