The FWS employs 7,500 people in nearly 700 locations across the United States. Employees include biologists with specialist training in wildlife, fisheries, and ecology and workers such as wildlife and refuge managers, engineers, and inspectors. Wildlife inspectors are the frontline detection agency against the illegal trade of wildlife. Volunteer and other affiliated organizations work closely with the department to observe animal populations and to assist with conservation efforts. These are often formal partnerships to deliver services.The Web site http://www.fws.gov/ partnerships/partnership_links.html lists partner organizations, including groups concerned with wetlands, endangered species, refuges, aquatic animals, recreational boating, fishing and hunting, and farming. The department also actively encourages nonaffiliated volunteers from the general public to assist with programs. Currently, around 35,000 volunteers contribute 1.4 million hours of time assisting the department each year.
The USGS employs a wide range of experts across many disciplines. These experts combine earth and life science knowledge to address problems. The integration of diverse scientific expertise enables the USGS to address complex natural science phenomena.The USGS employs around 10,000 people—ranging from scientists to technicians—to support staff. The USGS operates from more than 400 locations throughout the United States.
The WCS currently operates nearly 300 programs in more than 50 countries around the globe. There are many biology departments within universities whose scientists observe (and frequently investigate) the health of flora and fauna of the world. The OIE has a working group (founded in 1994) that focuses on wildlife disease (http://www.oie.int/wildlife/eng/ en_wildlife.htm).
Symposia that bring together experts from around the globe to improve understanding and recognition of the interactions and dependencies between disease in humans, domestic, and wild animals are appearing. These include the One World, One Health symposium held in 2004, which examined the current and potential movements of disease among humans, domestic animals, and wildlife populations. This meeting called for an interdisciplinary approach toward threats to the health of life on earth. The symposium developed the Manhattan principles, which call for greater coordination and cooperation in research, extension, and control measures for the increasing disease threats to humans and domestic and wild animals that most certainly will emerge during the 21st century (http://www. oneworldonehealth.org/).
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