Surveillance Policy

Government policy and oversight help to shape the level and extent of water surveillance. The development of any coherent policy is based on a situational assessment of hazards and general public principles. Hazard assessment covers issues such as prevalence of biological contamination of water supplies and the cost of treatment and testing. Public opinion also modifies policy, as exemplified by the recent issuance of state laws limiting smoking in public owing to heightened awareness of hazards associated with second-hand cigarette smoke. Because hazard assessment and public opinion vary geographically, policy implementation generally begins with a set of national

TABLE 9.1 Threat Potential of Biological Agents to Drinking Water

Agent Water Threat Stable in Water Chlorine Tolerance Early Clinical Presentation

Protozoa

TABLE 9.1 Threat Potential of Biological Agents to Drinking Water

Agent Water Threat Stable in Water Chlorine Tolerance Early Clinical Presentation

Protozoa

Cryptosporidium parvum

Yes

Stable for days

Oocysts resistant

Diarrhea

Giardia lamblia*

Yes

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