There have been several studies that have measured the informational value of ICD codes for chief complaints and diagnoses. As with free-text chief complaints, these studies utilized experimental methods that we discussed in Chapter 21 and address the three hypotheses of interest (restated for ICD codes):
Hypothesis 1: An individual ICD code or a code set can discriminate between whether a patient has syndrome or disease X or not.
Hypothesis 2: ICD code sets can discriminate between whether there is an outbreak of type Y or not.
Hypothesis 3: Algorithmic monitoring of ICD code sets can detect an outbreak of type Y earlier than current best practice (or some other reference method).
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