figure 33.8 A service layer added to the previously discussed enterprise architecture for biosurveillance (Figure 33.3).

shown in Figure 33.8. These services also function as a bridge between biosurveillance systems and frontline personnel (doctors, nurses, veterinarians, water supply managers, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, military field commanders). These people work everyday with possible sources of disease (humans, animals, water, food, and bioweapons). We know that an astute clinician is the frontline defense for detecting disease outbreaks. An astute clinician who has up-to-the-minute additional information about the health status of those in their community and neighboring communities is likely to be "more astute.'' For example, doctors who have knowledge of bacterial meningitis cases in a neighboring county will be on the lookout for patients with meningitis symptoms in their own county. SOA can augment PHIN so that public health information is available to not only public health personnel but also frontline personnel. The potential for reciprocity exists as outside groups make their data and functionality available as services for use by public health.

SOA not only facilitates data sharing, it is also facilitates sharing of functions (e.g., analysis of data). Government, health departments, and biosurveillance research groups all participate in biosurveillance. Undoubtedly, some organizations will have better capabilities than do others (e.g., in the physics community, some groups have the capability to carry out more sophisticated particle collision experiments, and some groups have the capability to carry out analysis of the data from these experiments; but as a community, physicists share their resources to advance science). Services will allow the more widespread use of the capabilities of these groups, advancing the mission of biosurveillance.

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