Project Management

Within the discipline of project management, a project is defined as "a temporary endeavor to create a unique product, service, or result," and project management as the "application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements" (PMI, 2004). Project management success is completion of the project scope to the satisfaction of the project customer, on time and within budget.

To achieve success, project management integrates the project resources to produce the product and manages scope, time, costs, quality, human resources, communication, risks, and procurement.

2.1. Project Management Processes

As temporary undertakings, all projects have a beginning and an ending, and project management has corresponding "initiating" and "closing" processes.The middle, or work, of the project is managed by "planning," "executing," and "monitoring and controlling" processes. Effective project management involves repeated performance of these processes, as illustrated in Figure 36.2. Iterative application of the project management processes delivers the benefits of the "plan/do/check/act" model of quality management practices (PMI, 2004).

2.1.1. Initiating Processes

The initiating processes define and authorize a project. The initiating processes may occur outside the formal boundary of the project and may be performed by people other than the project team, such as the project sponsor (the person or organization funding the project), as illustrated in Figure 36.2. Key initiating activities include the following: establishing the organizational case for the project and its relationship to the organization's strategic plan, developing the project requirements, evaluating alternatives and describing why the specific project is best suited to meet the objectives, determining the initial scope description, determining what resources the organization is willing to dedicate to the project (people and funds), and assigning the project manager.

Involving customers and other stakeholders generally improves the probability of buy-in and customer/stakeholder acceptance. Project stakeholders include anyone a project is likely to affect. Customers and users are stakeholders, as are data providers, data privacy staff, and IT infrastructure providers. The product of the initiating processes is the project charter, which is a document that formally authorizes the project, defines the project's purpose and boundaries, and assigns resources. Its role is to empower the project team to undertake the project.

figure 36.2 Project life cycle. (Adapted from Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), 3rd ed., Project Management Institute, Inc., 2004. Copyright and all rights reserved. Material from this publication has been reproduced with the permission of PMI.)

figure 36.2 Project life cycle. (Adapted from Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), 3rd ed., Project Management Institute, Inc., 2004. Copyright and all rights reserved. Material from this publication has been reproduced with the permission of PMI.)

2.1.2. Planning Processes

The planning processes define objectives and determine the course of action required to attain the objectives as well as the scope of the project (PMI, 2004). These processes comprise tasks commonly associated with project management, including the tasks shown in Table 36.1.

The planning processes begin early in the project, and the product of the processes is the project management plan.

We can think of the project management plan as the roadmap describing the path to successful project completion. The project management plan should include a project schedule as well as the various plans addressing each of the relevant project management areas: integration, scope, time, costs, quality, human resources, communication, risks, and procurement. The next section describes each of these areas in more detail.The project team performs the planning processes throughout the project to evaluate the need to adjust the plan in response to project realities.

table 3 6.1 Common Project Management Tasks

Common Project Management Tasks Refining the project scope

Breaking down the work of the project into pieces

Defining the activities that need to be performed to complete the project Determining activity sequence and interrelationships Determining necessary resources Cost budgeting

Identifying and securing staffing Scheduling

Identifying risks and developing plans to address them

Determining quality requirements and developing quality assurance plans

Determining project communications requirements

Developing project procurement plans

Developing project change control processes

Through the planning processes, the project team will define project-specific phases of work appropriate for the project life cycle. We discuss IT project life cycles and considerations in developing life cycles appropriate for CBBS projects shortly.

2.1.3. Executing Processes

The execution processes integrate resources to carry out the project management plan (PMI, 2004).

2.1.4. Monitoring and Controlling Processes

The monitoring and controlling processes regularly measure and monitor progress to identify deviations (known as variances) from the project management plan so corrective action can be taken to meet project objectives (PMI, 2004).

2.1.5. Closing Processes

The closing processes formalize acceptance of the project result by the project customer. Closing processes bring the project or phase to an orderly end, and transition the product of the project into the organization (PMI, 2004).

2.2. Project Management Areas

Projects are typically part of an organization. The relationship between the project and organization varies, and that relationship affects the scope of project management responsibilities. Although the nature of project management responsibility varies by organization and by project within an organization, project management encompasses many areas. The Project Management Institute's (PMI) list of project management areas, summarized in Table 36.2, provides a sense of the breadth of the project management task (PMI, 2004).

The Project Management Book of Knowledge provides comprehensive description of activities associated with each table 36.2 Project Management Institute Project Management Areas Project Management Area Description

Integration management Scope management

Time management Cost management

Quality management

Human resource management Communications management Procurement management

Risk management

Unifying the activities and resources of the project to complete Ensuring that the project includes all the work required, but only the work required required to meet the project requirements Ensuring timely completion Ensuring that the project can be completed within the project budget Ensuring that the project product will satisfy the project requirements Organizing and managing the project team Ensuring timely and appropriate project communication Managing the purchasing and acquisition of outside goods and services required to complete the project Identifying and managing project risks

Adapted from Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), 3rd ed., Project Management Institute, Inc., 2004. Copyright and all rights reserved. Material from this publication has been reproduced with the permission of PMI.

area, the interaction of the areas with the key project management processes described earlier, available management tools and techniques for each area, and inputs and outputs of each area (PMI,2004).

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

Get My Free Ebook


Responses

Post a comment