Many state and locally operated laboratories in addition to clinical and public health laboratories produce test results that may be useful for surveillance. Forensic laboratories and toxicology laboratories are frequently associated with departments of public safety or with state or local medical examiners. These forensic laboratories may be positioned at the federal, state, or local level, depending on the jurisdiction. Medical examiners contribute to biosurveillance by elucidating unusual causes of death (see Chapter 11). Medical examiners and forensic pathol-ogists frequently rely on laboratories to establish the exact cause of death.
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