Molluscs

Infection with Bonamia ostreae

Infection with Bonamia exitiosus

Infection with Mikrocytos roughleyi

Infection with Haplosporidium nelsoni

Infection with Marteilia refringens

Infection with Marteilia sydneyi

Infection with Mikrocytos mackini

Infection with Perkinsus marinus

Infection with Perkinsus olseni/atlanticus

Infection with Haplosporidium costale

Infection with Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis

CRUSTACEANS Taura syndrome White spot disease Yellowhead disease

Tetrahedral baculovirosis (Baculovirus penaei) Spherical baculovirosis (Penaeus monodon-type baculovirus) Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis Crayfish plague (Aphanomyces astaci) Spawner-isolated mortality virus disease space and over time. This pattern requires a different kind of manipulation of epidemiological data, such as the use of detection algorithms based on cumulative sums or cut point statistics. It also requires detection algorithms capable of searching a large space of possible time intervals and spatial locations. Several chapters in Part III of this book discuss such algorithms.

5.2. Contagious Person-to-Person

The fifth pattern results from person-to-person transmission of a contagious disease, such as influenza, SARS, measles, or rubella (German measles). The timeliness requirement for this type of outbreak is not paramount because people become infected in waves. The recognition of this pattern involves biosurveillance components capable of collecting and analyzing social networks and contact information.

5.3. Commercially Distributed Products

The sixth pattern is contamination of commercially distributed products, especially food. Food contamination may be as simple as contamination at the site of preparation, which is what the Rajneesh cult attempted in The Dalles, Oregon, or as involved as tampering with distribution or production facilities (Torok et al., 1997). The timeliness requirement may be anthrax-like, as many individuals can be infected nearly simultaneously.

Improving the timeliness of detection of threats in this category requires biosurveillance components that can monitor the food supply directly for contamination. It also requires components that can correlate patterns of disease in a population with knowledge of food production and distribution systems.

TABLE 4.6 Nine Patterns

Pattern

Representative Outbreak

Other Threats

Large aerosol release

1979 Sverdlovsk release of B. anthracis

Weaponized anthrax, weaponized staph enterotoxin B, weaponized

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