Milk production in the United States in 2003 totaled 170 billion pounds, resulting from the tireless efforts of 9 million cows in more than 70,000 dairy herds (USDA, 2004b). Production is concentrated in 20 states, which house 7.8 million cows producing 147 billion pounds of milk. California is the largest milk producer, accounting for 20% of the U.S. milk supply (USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, 2004).
Milk production and processing routines may vary slightly from state to state. In California, a farm will milk its cows and ship the raw milk by tanker truck to a silo, which can hold from 50,000 to 200,000 gallons. The milk then proceeds from the silo into a processing plant where pasteurization (heating to 170°F for 15 minutes), homogenization, and
FIGURE 10.1 CII Inc.laboratory request form. (From CII Laboratory Services, Kansas City, Missouri.)
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