LOINC is a standard vocabulary for clinical laboratory tests and clinical observations, such as electrocardiogram measurements and vital signs (Huff et al., 1998). LOINC stands for "Logical Observation Identifiers, Names, and Codes.''
The Regenstrief Institute for Health Care created and maintains LOINC. In particular, the LOINC committee— composed of representatives from various stakeholder groups, such as clinical laboratories and vendors of laboratory information systems—maintains LOINC. The meetings of the LOINC committee are open to the public. No license fee is necessary to use LOINC.
LOINC has broad coverage of laboratory tests done for both human and animal diseases. Note that LOINC only covers observations and tests, not their results. For example, the proper way to code the result of a microbiology culture is to use a LOINC code to identify the test (e.g., 17928-3 for table 32^2 Vocabulary Standards for Biosurveillance
Standard Widely Implemented
Possible Standards for Implementation (List Is Not Exhaustive)
Laboratory test names
Organism names (viruses, bacteria, protozoa) Specimen types
Organism susceptibility to antibiotics Radiology procedures Occupation
Signs, symptoms, diseases, diagnoses
Over-the-counter healthcare products Animal species/breeds Plant species
Geopolitical entities (countries, states, etc.) Weather observations
ICD-9-CM (claims data)
CPT (physician billing), ICD-9-CM (hospital billing) UPCs/GTIN
LOINC SNOMED-CT SNOMED-CT, HL7 LOINC
CPT, SNOMED-CT, LOINC SNOMED-CT ICD-9-CM,SNOMED-CT CPT, SNOMED, ICD-9-CM NDCs, RxNorm, SNOMED-CT
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