Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

Contributors xiii

PART I: THE CHALLENGE OF BIOSURVEILLANCE 1

Chapter 1. Introduction 3

Michael M. Wagner

Chapter 2. Outbreaks and Investigations 13

Virginia Dato, Richard Shephard, and Michael M. Wagner

Chapter 3. Case Detection, Outbreak Detection, and Outbreak Characterization 27

Michael M. Wagner, Louise S. Gresham, and Virginia Dato

Chapter 4. Functional Requirements for Biosurveillance 51

Michael M. Wagner, Loren Shaffer, and Richard Shephard

PART II: ORGANIZATIONS THAT CONDUCT BIOSURVEILLANCE AND THE DATA THEY COLLECT 65

Chapter 5. Governmental Public Health 67

Rita Velikina, Virginia Dato, and Michael M. Wagner

Chapter 6. The Healthcare System 89

Michael M. Wagner, William R. Hogan, and Ron M. Aryel

Chapter 7. Animal Health 111

Richard Shephard, Ron M. Aryel, and Loren Shaffer

Chapter 8. Laboratories 129

Charles Brokopp, Eric Resultan, Harvey Holmes, and Michael M. Wagner

Chapter 9. Water Suppliers 143

Jason R.E. Shepard, Nick M. Cirino, Christina Egan, and Ron M. Aryel

Chapter 10. Food and Pharmaceutical Industries 161

Ron M. Aryel and T.V. (Sunil) Anklekar

Chapter 11. Coroners and Medical Examiners 179

Ron M. Aryel and Michael M. Wagner

Chapter 12. Other Organizations That Conduct Biosurveillance 183

Michael M. Wagner, Julie Pavlin, Kenneth L. Cox, and Nick M. Cirino

PART III: DATA ANALYSIS 197

Chapter 13. Case Detection Algorithms 199

Fu-Chiang Tsui, Michael M. Wagner, Jeremy Espino, and Richard Shephard

Chapter 14. Classical Time-Series Methods for Biosurveillance 217

Weng-Keen Wong and Andrew W. Moore

Chapter 15. Combining Multiple Signals for Biosurveillance 235

Andrew W. Moore, Brigham Anderson, Kaustav Das, and Weng-Keen Wong

Chapter 16. Methods for Detecting Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Clusters 243

Daniel B. Neill and Andrew W. Moore

Chapter 17. Natural Language Processing for Biosurveillance 255

Wendy W. Chapman

Chapter 18. Bayesian Methods for Diagnosing Outbreaks 273

Gregory F. Cooper, Denver H. Dash, John D. Levander, Weng-Keen Wong, William R. Hogan, and Michael M. Wagner

Chapter 19. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling in Biosurveillance 289

William R. Hogan

Chapter 20. Methods for Algorithm Evaluation 301

Michael M. Wagner and Garrick Wallstrom

PART IV: NEWER TYPES OF SURVEILLANCE DATA 311

Chapter 21. Methods for Evaluating Surveillance Data 313

Michael M. Wagner

Chapter 22. Sales of Over-the-Counter Healthcare Products 321

William R. Hogan and Michael M. Wagner

Chapter 23. Chief Complaints and ICD Codes 333

Michael M. Wagner, William R. Hogan, Wendy W. Chapman, and Per H. Gesteland

Chapter 24. Absenteeism 361

Leslie Lenert, Jeffrey Johnson, David Kirsh, and Ron M. Aryel

Chapter 25. Emergency Call Centers 369

Ron M. Aryel and Michael M. Wagner

Chapter 26. The Internet as Sentinel 375

Michael M. Wagner, Heather A. Johnson, and Virginia Dato

Chapter 27. Physiologic and Space-Based Sensors 387

Ron M. Aryel

Chapter 28. Data NOS (Not Otherwise Specified) 393

Michael M. Wagner and Murray Campbell

PART V: DECISION MAKING 403

Chapter 29. Decision Analysis 405

Agnieszka Onisko, Garrick Wallstrom, and Michael M. Wagner

Chapter 30. Probabilistic Interpretation of Surveillance Data 417

Garrick Wallstrom, Michael M. Wagner, and Agnieska Onisko

Chapter 31. Economic Studies in Biosurveillance 423

Bruce Y. Lee, Michael M. Wagner, Agnieszka Onisko, and Vahan Grigoryan

PART VI: BUILDING AND FIELD TESTING BIOSURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS 437

Chapter 32. Information Technology Standards in Biosurveillance 439

William R. Hogan and Michael M. Wagner

Chapter 33. Architecture 453

Jeremy Espino and Michael M. Wagner

Chapter 34. Advancing Organizational Integration: Negotiation, Data Use Agreements, Law and Ethics 465

M. Cleat Szczepaniak, Kenneth W. Goodman, Michael M. Wagner, Judith Hutman, and Sherry Daswani

Chapter 35. Other Design and Implementation Issues 481

Steve DeFrancesco, Kevin Hutchison, and Michael M. Wagner

Chapter 36. Project Management 493

Neil Jacobson, Sherry Daswani, and Per H. Gesteland

Chapter 37. Methods for Field Testing of Biosurveillance Systems 507

Michael M. Wagner

Epilogue: The Future of Biosurveillance 517

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