Microalgae were used for oxidation and hydroxylation of organic compounds (Fig. 3). For example, hydroxylation of (S)-limonene affords a mixture of cis and trans carveols.14 By hydroxylation and oxidation using Chlorella,15
valencene, cheaply obtained from Valencia orange, was converted to the product nootkatone, which is the aroma of grapefruit and is used for cosmetic and fiber manufactures. Bioconversion of hydrocortisone by Nostoc afforded the degradated ketone16 via oxidation. Oxidation of sulfur atom in thiaoleic acid was done by Chlorella.11 This reaction was catalyzed by oleoyl desaturase.
However, in these reactions, over-degradated product is also formed, and it is necessary to develop methods to inhibit the unnecessary reaction to afford a single product in high chemical yield. Stereo- and regioselective reactions are also desired.
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