Underlying causes of iron-deficiency anaemia include blood loss, inefficient absorption due to gastrointestinal disturbances and increased destruction of red blood cells
• Blood loss (menstruation, menorrhagia, bleeding haemorrhoids, parasites, bleeding peptic ulcer, malignancy, H. pylori infection, gastrointestinal bleeding due to medication such as NSAIDs).
• Inefficient absorption (chronic gastrointestinal disturbances, malabsorption syndromes, coeliac disease) (Annibale et al 2001).
• Increased destruction of red blood cells (malaria, high-intensity exercise).
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