Modulation Of Immune Function And Inflammation

The procyanidin fraction from cocoa demonstrates immunomodulatory function in vitro, with stimulation of TNF-alpha (Mao et al 2002) and modulation of the secretion of the cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF-beta-1) (Mao et al 2003), as well as inhibiting induced nuclear transcription of human IL-1B (Mao et al 2000a), phytohemagglutinin-induced stimulation of IL-2 (Mao et al 1999) and mitogen-stimulated secretion of IL-4 (Mao et al 2000b) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

Cocoa polyphenols have also been shown to reduce leukotriene synthesis through inhibition of human 5-lipoxygenase (Sies et al 2005).

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