Lipid-lowering activity has been reported in studies of normal and diabetic animals for the fruit extract, flavonoids extracted from bitter melon or a methanolic fraction of the plant (Ahmed et al 2001, Anila & Vijayalakshmi 2000, Chaturvedi 2005, Chaturvedi et al 2004, Senanayake et al 2004, Singh et al 1989). Typically, decreases in triglyceride and LDL levels and increases in HDL levels are seen.

In contrast, karela oil increased total lipid levels and phospholipid concentrations in heart and brain as compared with linseed, according to an in vivo study (Dhar & Bhattacharyya 1998).

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