A methanolic extract and its butanol-soluble fraction have been found to have hypoglycemic and gastroprotective effects and to slow gastric emptying. From the butanol-soluble fraction, four new triterpene oligoglycosides, calendasaponins A, B, C and D, were isolated, together with eight known saponins, seven known flavonol glycosides, and a known sesquiterpene glucoside. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The principal saponin constituents, glycosides A, B, C, D and F, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on an increase in serum glucose levels in glucose-loaded rats, gastric emptying in mice, and ethanol and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats (Yoshikawa et al 2001 ).
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