Glossary And Abbreviations

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Abortifacient - Substance used to terminate a pregnancy. ACE - angiotensin-converting enzyme ACTH - adrenocorticotropic hormone

Active constituents - Chemical components that exhibit pharmacological activity and contribute to the agent's overall therapeutic effects. Acute - Beginning abruptly; sharp and intense; subsiding after a short period. Adaptogen - Innocuous agent, non-specifically increasing resistance to physical, chemical, environmental, emotional or biological factors ('stressors') and having a normalising effect independent of the nature of the pathological state. ADHD - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADI - Acceptable Daily Intake

Adjuvant - Substance added to a mixture to enhance the effect of the main ingredient.

ADRAC - Adverse Drug Reactions Advisoiy Committee (Australia) Adverse reaction - Unintended harmful, undesirable or seriously unpleasant response to a medicine at doses intended for prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapeutic effect.

Aerial parts - All parts of a plant that are above the ground. Veiy often, plants that have useful aerial parts are harvested when flowering (e.g St John's wort {Hypericum perforatum) of the Hypericaceae family).

Agonist - Substance that binds to and activates a receptor, thereby causing a response.

Alkaloid - Naturally occurring cyclic organic compound containing nitrogen in a negative oxidation state, which has limited distribution in living organisms. Based on their structures, alkaloids are divided into several subgroups: 11011-heterocyclic alkaloids and heterocyclic alkaloids, which are again divided into 12 major groups according to their basic ring structure. They tend to have marked physiological effects in vivo (e.g. morphine, codeine, nicotine). Allostatic responses - Changes that occur in the body in order to adapt and respond to physical or psychological change (e.g. standing, sitting, stress). They are critical to suivival, have broad boundaries and involve the sympathetic nervous system and the HPA axis. ALT - alanine aminotransferase Amino acid - Organic compound composed of one or more basic amino groups and one or more acidic carboxyl groups; form the basic structural units of protein. 1 — Glossary and Abbreviations 1406

AMP - adenosine monophosphate

Analgesic - Substance that relieves the symptoms of pain. ANF - atrial natriuretic factor

Antagonist - Substance that binds to a receptor (blocking others from doing so), but does not activate it, causing a diminished response. Anthelmintic - Substance that destroys or assists in the expulsion of intestinal worms.

Anthocyanins - Compounds responsible for the bright colours of most flowers and fruits; water-soluble pigments that occur as glycosides and their aglycones (anthocyanidins) and have significant anti-oxidant activity. Anti-allergic - Substance that reduces the allergic response (e.g. antihistamine activity or mast cell stabilisation).

Anti-asthmatic - Substance that prevents asthma attacks and/or reduces their severity.

Anticholinergic - Agent that blocks cholinergic receptors (e.g. atropine), which results in inhibition of transmission of parasympathetic nerve impulses. Anticoagulant - Substance that prevents or delays blood coagulation (e.g. warfarin).

Antidiabetic - Substance that aids in blood glucose management or improves management of diabetes via other mechanisms.

Anti-emetic - Substance or procedure that prevents or alleviates nausea and vomiting.

Antigen - Substance that the body recognises as foreign and to which it can evoke an immune response; often it is a protein.

Antimicrobial - Substance that kills microorganisms or inhibits their growth or replication.

Anti-oxidant - Substance that inhibits or delays the oxidation of a second substance; also described as scavenging free radical molecules. Antiplatelet - Substance that inhibits platelet aggregation and thereby prolongs bleeding time (e.g. aspirin).

Antipruritic - Substance or procedure that relieves or prevents itching. Antipyretic - Substance or procedure that reduces fever. Antispasmodic - Substance that reduces smooth muscle spasms. Antitussive - Substance that suppresses the cough reflex. Anxiolytic - Substance used to treat and relieve anxiety states. Apolipoprotein - Protein on the surface of lipoproteins that may bind to receptors, activate enzymes involved in lipoprotein metabolism and provide 1 — Glossary and Abbreviations 1407


Apoptosis - Programmed cell death. ARMD - age-related macular degeneration AST - aspartate aminotransferase

Astringent - Substance that precipitates proteins, causes vasoconstriction and constriction of mucous membranes, and reduces cell permeability when applied topically.

ATP - adenosine triphosphate

Bark - Outermost protective layer of a tree trunk, formed by layers of living cells just above the wood itself. There are usually high concentrations of the active ingredients in the bark (e.g. cinnamon from Cinnamomum camphora of the Lauraceae family).

Bioavailability - Proportion of an administered dose that reaches the systemic circulation intact.

Bitter tonic - Herbs with a bitter taste, which are used to stimulate the upper gastrointestinal tract (i.e. stomach, liver, pancreas). They stimulate appetite and digestive function. BMI - Body mass index BPH - benign prostatic hypertrophy

Bulb - Fleshy structure made up of numerous layers of bulb scales, which are leaf bases. Bulbs that are popular for medicinal use include onion and garlic {Allium cepa and A. sativum, respectively, both of the Liliaceae family). CAM - complementary and alternative medicine

Cardioprotective - Substance that protects the heart from damage by toxins or ischaemia (oxygen deficiency).

Carminative - Substance that relieves flatulence, abdominal distension, spasm and discomfort by relaxing the intestinal muscles and sphincters. Carotenoid - Group of red, yellow or orange highly unsaturated pigments found naturally in foods. Some are converted to vitamin A in the body and most exhibit anti-oxidant properties.

Chelation - Chemical interaction of a metal ion with another substance, which results in the formation of a molecular complex with the metal firmly bound and isolated.

Chemoprevention - Substance or intervention that reduces the incidence of cancer.

CFS - chronic fatigue syndrome

Cholagogue - Substance that stimulates the release of stored bile from the gall 1 — Glossary and Abbreviations 1408 bladder.

Choleretic - Substance that stimulates both the production and the flow of bile. Chronic - Persisting for a long period of time.

Chylomicrons - Large particles that transport dietaiy cholesterol and fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver. CNS - central nervous system

Cognitive activator - Substance or procedure that stimulates the mental processes such as memory, judgement, reasoning and comprehension. Cohort study - Study concerning a specific population that shares a common characteristic (e.g. same age, same gender).

Cold extraction - Plant material is extracted in a solvent of differing polarity at room temperature, which enables maximum extraction of most components. Contraindication - Any factor that makes it undesirable or dangerous to administer a medicine or perform a procedure on a specific patient. Corticosteroids - Steroidal hormones that are synthesised and released from the adrenal cortex; includes both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. COX - cyclo-oxygenase

Crude herb - Raw plant before it is processed or dried. CVD - cerebrovascular disease

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) - Proteins involved in extra-mitochondrial electron transfer, chiefly in the liver and during detoxification. There are many CYPs, which are named by the root symbol CYP, followed by a number for family, a letter for subfamily, and another number for the specific gene. DBP - diastolic blood pressure

Decoction - Aqueous medicine made from an extract of water-soluble substances, usually with the aid of boiling water.

Decongestant - Substance or procedure that reduces or eliminates congestion and swelling, usually of mucous membranes.

Debridement - Removal of foreign objects, damaged tissue, cellular debris and dirt from a wound or burn to prevent infection and promote healing. Demulcent - Substance that soothes and reduces irritation of tissues such as skin or mucous membranes. DHA - docosahexanoic acid DHEA - dehydroepiandrosterone

Diuretic - Substance that modifies kidney function to increase the rate of urine DMBA - 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene 1 — Glossary and Abbreviations 1409

Double-blind study - Both the test subject and clinician do not know whether a placebo or active medicine is being administered. The substances are often identifiable by a code that is revealed after results are obtained. This method is widely used in clinical studies to confer greater objectivity. DSM-IV - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [of Mental Health Disorders], 4th

ECG - electrocardiogram EEG - electroencephalogram

Emmenagogue - Substance that increases the strength and frequency of uterine contractions and initiates and promotes menstrual flow (some are also abortifacients).

Emollient - Substance that softens tissue and reduces irritation, usually of the skin and mucous membranes.

Endogenous - Originating from within the body; synthesised by the body. Epidemiological study - Study of occurrence and distribution of disease in large human populations.

Ergogenic aid - Substance that improves energy utilisation with the expectation that it will enhance physical performance.

Erythropoiesis - Process of erythrocyte production in the bone marrow. ESADDI - estimated safe and adequate daily dietaiy intake ESCOP - European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy ESR - erythrocyte sedimentation rate

Essential amino acids - Eight amino acids that are required for health and must be obtained from the diet: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine.

Essential fatty acids (EFA) - Polyunsaturated acids required for growth and general health, and must be obtained from the diet (e.g. omega 3 EFAs found in fish oils).

Essential oil - Volatile oils usually extracted from plants through a process of either steam distillation or microwave extraction. They consist of terpenes (mono- and sesquiterpenoids and coumarins) and are of considerable importance as active ingredients (e.g. peppermint oil from Mentha x piperita from the Lamiaceae family).

Expectorant - Substance that promotes the expulsion of mucus, fluids or sputum from the respiratory tract. Extract - Substance prepared by the use of solvents or evaporation to separate it 1 — Glossary and Abbreviations 1410 from the original material.

Fatty oils - Non-volatile, insoluble oils pressed from either the seeds or the fruits of a plant (e.g olive oil). FDA - Food and Drug Administration (USA) FEV1 - forced expiratory volume in 1 second

Flavonoids - Compounds responsible for the colour of flowers, fruits and sometimes leaves. The name refers to the Latin flavus, meaning yellow. Some may contribute to the colour as co-pigment. Flavonoids protect the plant from UV damage and play a role in reproduction by attracting pollinators. Flowers - Commonly used in medicine (e.g. cloves (Syzvgium aromaticum, Myrtaceae family), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita, Asteraceae family) and marigold (Calendula officinalis, Asteraceae family)).

Fluid extract - Hydro-ethanolic extract of crude herbal material with a drug solvent ratio of 1:1 or 1:2 (e.g. 1 part herb to 1 or 2 parts solvent). Free radical - Unstable organic compound with at least one unpaired electron. Fresh plant tincture - Herbal extract made from fresh plant instead of dried material.

Fruit - Most commonly used seeds are anis (Pimpinella anisum) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), both of the Apiaceae family. In some instances, the fruit peel is used specifically (e.g. citrus spp, from the Rutaceae family). FSH - follicle stimulating hormone FVC - forced vital capacity GABA - gamma-aminobutyric acid GAD - generalised anxiety disorder

Galactogogue - Substance that promotes the production and flow of breast GI - glycaemic index

Glycoside - Sugar-containing compound with a glycone (sugar) and aglycone (non-sugar) component that can be cleaved on hydrolysis. Gum - Solids consisting of mixtures of polysaccharides that are water-soluble and are partially digested by humans. Gums sometimes flow from a damaged plant stem as a defence mechanism or sometimes as a protective system against the invasion of bacteria and fungi. Well-known examples are gum arabic (Acacia Senegal, Leguminosae), and aloe gel (Aloe vera (Liliaceae family): gum mixed with water).

Gy - gray (unit of radiation)

Haemostasis - Physiological process that stops bleeding (i.e. vessel constriction, 1 — Glossary and Abbreviations 1411 platelet plug formation and blood coagulation).

HbAlc - haemoglobin Alc HBeAg - hepatitis B early antigen HDL - high-density lipoprotein

Hepatoprotective - Substance that reduces or prevents liver damage; protects against the destructive effect of hepatotoxins.

High-performance liquid chromatography - Veiy popular and widely used method for the analysis and isolation of bioactive natural products. HIV - human immunodeficiency virus HMG-CoA - 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A HPA - hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal [axis] HRT - hormone replacement therapy HSV - herpes simplex virus

Hypnotic - Substance that induces sleep or the feeling of dreamy sleepiness. Hypoglycaemic - Substance that reduces blood glucose levels. Hypolipidaemic - Substance that reduces blood levels of lipids (e.g. cholesterol, triglycerides).

Iatrogenic - Condition caused by medical or surgical treatment or diagnostic procedures.

IBS - irritable bowel syndrome IFN - interferon Ig - immunoglobulin IL - interleukin

Immunomodulation - Substance that alters the immune response; also described as having a balancing effect on immune responses. Immunostimulant - Substance that augments the immune response. Immunosuppressant - Substance that inhibits the immune response. Infused oil - Herbal extract using a fixed oil as the solvent. Infusion (herbal) - Herbal tea prepared by pouring boiling water over plant parts and steeping for a short time. iNOS - inducible nitric oxide synthase Inotrope - Substance that has an effect on the force of myocardial contractility. A positive inotrope increases the force of contraction whereas a negative inotrope decreases the force of contraction. INR - international normalised ratio

Interaction - Pharmacological interaction is said to occur when the response to one medicine varies from what is usually predicted because another substance 1 — Glossary and Abbreviations 1412 has altered the response. An interaction may lead to drug toxicity or a loss of

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drug effect; however, it can also be manipulated to benefit the patient by improving outcomes, reducing side-effects or reducing drug dose and costs. IP - intraperitoneal IQ - intelligence quotient Ischaemia - oxygen deficiency. IV - intravenous IVF - in vitro fertilisation

Laxative - Substance that causes bowel evacuation. LD50 - median lethal dose LDL - low-density lipoprotein LH - luteinising hormone

Maceration - Method of herbal extraction in which cut herb is soaked in solvent (such as cold water) for a period of time before draining, straining and pressing.

Meta-analysis - Quantitative statistical procedure for combining the results of independent studies to better analyse the efficacy of a specific treatment. Mineral - Compound containing a non-metal, metal, radical or phosphate required for proper body functioning and health maintenance. Mineral oil - Faecal softener and laxative. MND - motor neurone disease MOA - monoamine oxidase MRS A - methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MSSA - methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus

Mucilage - Sticky mixture of carbohydrates produced by plant cell activity. Herbs with a high mucilaginous content are often used as demulcents (e.g. Ulmus fulvus (slippery elm), Althea officinalis (marshmallow)). Mucolytic - Substance that dissolves or destroys mucus.

Myocardial infarction - Necrosis (death) of a portion of the heart muscle; also called a heart attack.

NADPH - nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

Narrow therapeutic index (NTI) - The dose required to produce a toxic effect in 50% of test animals (TD50) is close to the dose required to produce an effective therapeutic response in 50% of test animals (ED50); such drugs are particularly susceptible to adverse interactions (e.g. digoxin). Nervine - Substance that exerts a relaxant effect; described as nourishing and strengthening the nervous system. 1 — Glossary and Abbreviations 1413

Neurotransmitter - Chemical that acts as a messenger, enabling transmission of nerve impulses across synapses and neuromuscular junctions. The most important are acetylcholine, catecholamines (noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine), serotonin, some amino acids and neuro-active peptides. NK - natural killer [cell] NO - nitric oxide

NSAID - non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Nutritive - Substance that contains numerous nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates and fats. NYHA - New York Heart Association Classification OA - osteoarthritis OCP - oral contraceptive pill OTC - over-the-counter

Oxytocic - Substance that exerts similar effects to oxytocin (i.e. stimulates smooth muscle, usually of the uterus, to contract). PCOS - polycystic ovaries syndrome PEF - peak expiratory flow

Peri-operative - Pertaining to the time of surgery. PG - prostaglandin

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) - P-gp is a transport protein found on the surface of hepatocytes, renal tubular epithelial cells, epithelial cells in the intestine and placenta and capillary epithelial cells in the brain. It has a counter-transport activity (i.e. can transport medicines from the blood back into the gastrointestinal tract, thereby reducing bioavailability).

Pharmacodynamics - Study of the effects of drugs on living organisms. Pharmacokinetics - Study of the actions of drugs within the body (i.e. absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, onset of action and duration of effect).

Phytochemical - Naturally occurring chemical found in a plant. Phytotherapy - Study and application of plant medicine; a modern term used to describe scientifically investigated and validated herbal medicine. Placebo - Harmless inactive substance that does not contain an active medicine; used in clinical studies for comparison with medicines suspected of exerting a clinical effect to determine whether in fact a significant response does occur. PMS - premenstrual syndrome PO — per os (oral) 1 — Glossary and Abbreviations 1414

Polypharmacy - Use of many medicines by a patient with one or more health conditions.

Polysaccharide - Carbohydrate polymer formed from three or more sugar molecules.

Postprandial - After a meal.

Poultice - Paste made from crushed fresh plant, either mixed with oil or alcohol or simply made in water and applied to the parts of the body. PPI - proton-pump inhibitors ppm - parts per million

Prospective study - Study designed to determine the relationship between a condition and a characteristic shared by some members of a group. Usually the population selected is healthy at the beginning of the study and are observed over a period of time for the development of certain conditions in the different subgroups (e.g. smokers and non-smokers). PUFA - polyunsaturated fatty acids PUVA - psoralen ultraviolet A QOL - quality of life RA - rheumatoid arthritis RAST - radioallergosorbent test RCT - randomised controlled trial RDI - recommended daily intake

Resin - Excreted from specialised cells or ducts in plants and consists of a mixture of essential oils and polymerised terpenes; usually insoluble in water. Well-known examples include frankincense (Boswellia sacra) and myrrh (Commiphora molmol), both of the Burseraceae family

Restorative - Restores or renews a person's state of health or consciousness to normal.

Rhizome - Root; underground fleshy stem that grows horizontally and acts as food storage for the plant.

Risk factor - Factor that increases a person's susceptibility to an unwanted, unpleasant or unhealthy event or disease.

Root - Fleshy or woody, usually underground, part of a plant; may be fibrous (e.g. Urtica dioica or U. radix of the Urticaceae family, stinging nettle), solid (e.g. Glycyrrhiza glabra of the Leguminosae family, licorice) or fleshy (e.g. Harpagophytum procumbens of the Pedaliaceae family, devil's claw). Salicylate - Substance that contains or is derived from salicylic acid. 1 — Glossary and Abbreviations 1415

Saponin - Vast group of glycosides that occur in many plants; dissolve in water and form a soapy solution when shaken; used in demulcents. SBP - systolic blood pressure SC - subcutaneous

Seeds - Contained within the fruit and used medicinally (e.g. fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare, Apiaceae)). SLE - systemic lupus eiythematosus SSRI - selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Synergistic - Several components acting or working together in a coordinated manner to produce an effect greater than that of the sum of the individual effects.

Tannin - Substance that forms a precipitate with proteins, nitrogenous bases, polysaccharides and some alkaloids and glycosides (e.g. Camellia sinensis, the herb commonly used to make 'tea' is a rich source of tannins). TCM - traditional Chinese medicine TGA - Therapeutic Drugs Administration (Australia) Th - T helper cell

Therapeutic index - Measure of the safety of a medicine based upon the dose required to produce a toxic effect in 50% of test animals (TD50) divided by the dose required to produce an effective therapeutic response in 50% of test animals (ED50) i.e. TI = TD5C/ED50.

Thin layer chromatography - Analytical method using glass or aluminium plates precoated with the sorbent (e.g. silica gel) to separate a compound mixture according to the polarity of its components. Tincture - Hydro-ethanolic extraction of crude herbal material; usually extracted in the ratio of 1:5 (1 part herb to 5 parts solvent). Glyceride tinctures may be prepared by using glycerol rather than alcohol. TNF - tumour necrosis factor TPN - total parenteral nutrition TSH - thyroid stimulating hormone URTI - upper respiratory tract infection UTI - urinary tract infection UV - ultraviolet VAS - visual analogue scale

Vitamin - Organic compound essential to life. With few exceptions, they cannot be synthesised in the body and must be obtained from the diet. 1 — Glossary and Abbreviations 1416

VLDL - veiy low-density lipoprotein

WOMAC - Western Ontario and McMasters University Osteoarthritis Index

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1 — Glossary and Abbreviations

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