The results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study suggests that both milk and dark chocolate, but not white chocolate, improve cognitive function. A second double-blind study suggests that this improvement is due to the methylxanthin content of chocolate, with 11.6 g of cocoa powder producing identical improvements in cognitive function and the mood construct 'energetic arousal' as a mixture of caffeine (19 mg) and theobromine (250 mg) (Smit et al 2004).
Consumption of a 65 g chocolate bar was shown to significantly increase driving accuracy and reduce collisions compared to an equicaloric snack of cheese and biscuits or no snack in a controlled trial of 12 volunteers (Smith & Rich 1998).
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