Choleretic And Cholagogue

A significant increase in bile flow has been demonstrated in studies using isolated perfused rat liver in vivo after acute treatment, as well as after repeated administration (Saenz et al 2002). Choleretic activity has also been reported in a double-blind placebo controlled study, with maximal effects on mean bile secretion observed 60 minutes after a single dose (Kirchhoff et al 1994).

A study that evaluated the effects of four extracts and phenolic content on bile flow and liver protection demonstrated that the extract with the highest concentration of phenolic derivatives exerted the strongest effect (Speroni et al 2003).

One study determined that treatment does not produce changes to the liver enzymes gamma-GT, AST, ALT or glutamic dehydrogenase (Pittler et al 2002).

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