In vivo studies suggest that rosemary extract may reduce the effects of carcinogenic or toxic agents on many cell lines, including rat mammary gland (Amagase et al 1996, Singletary et al 1996), mouse liver and stomach (Singletary & Rokusek 1997), bone marrow (Fahim et al 1999) and skin (Huang et al 1994).
An in vitro study on human bronchial cells found that rosemary extract and its constituents, carnosol and carnosic acid, may have chemoprotective activity through decreasing carcinogen activation via inhibition of the enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1) and increasing carcinogen detoxification by induction of phase II enzymes (Offord et al 1995). Carnosol has been found to also restrict the invasive ability of mouse melanoma cells in vitro by reducing MMP-9 expression and activity (Huang et al 2005).
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