Chemical Components

Colostrum contains macronutrients, such as protein and carbohydrate, micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, together with cytokines, including IL-1 -beta, IL-6, trypsin inhibitors, protease inhibitors and oligosaccharides. It also contains growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II, transforming growth factor-alpha and -beta, lactoferrin, epidermal growth factor and others. Several different antimicrobial factors are also present, such as immunoglobulin (Ig) A, secretory IgA, lgG-1, lgG-2 and IgM, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and lysozyme, which produce both specific and non-specific bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal effects on many pathological microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. lgG-1 is the principal immunoglobulin type in colostrums, and IgM, IgA and lgG-2 are present in lower amounts (Mach & Pahud 1971).

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