The major constituents are triterpene saponins (2-10%) based on oleanolic acid and flavonols (3-o-glycosides of isorhamnetin and quercetin), including astraglin, hyperoside, isoqueritrin and rutin, as well as the carotenoids flavoxanthin and auroxanthin (Bako et al 2002). The triterpendiol esters faradiol laurate, faradiol myristate and faradiol palmitate have been identified as the major active compounds, which are also used as marker compounds for standardisation of calendula extracts (Hamburger et al 2003, Zitterl-Eglseer et a I 2001). The terpenoids faradiol, amidiol and calenduladiol have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity (Neukirch et al 2005).
Other constituents include essential oil, sesquiterpenes, including caryophyllene, and triterpenes, including amyrins, lupeol and lupenone. Calendula also contains
polysaccharides (WHO 2003), as well as minerals such as calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, copper and manganese (Ahmed et al 2003).
Was this article helpful?
Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.