According to in vitro studies the essential oil has bactericidal and fungicidal activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Candida albicans in concentrations above 0.05% v/v, but has no effect against the Gramnegative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Aggag & Yousef 1972) and Salmonella typhimurium (Gomes-Carneiro et al 2005). In contrast, extracts of chamomile have demonstrated antimicrobial activity against E. coli (Ceska et al 1992). The growth of 5. aureus, Streptococcus mutans and group B streptococcus was inhibited by chamomile extract at concentrations of 10 mg/mL (Cinco et al 1983). In
vitro tests using apigenin have identified inhibitory activity against HIV activation, possibly by affecting viral transcription (Critchfield et al 1997, Trovato et al 2000). Additionally, a semi-purified extract of chamomile has been found to inhibit HSV in vitro (Suganda etal 1983).
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.