According to in vitro studies the essential oil has bactericidal and fungicidal activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Candida albicans in concentrations above 0.05% v/v, but has no effect against the Gramnegative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Aggag & Yousef 1972) and Salmonella typhimurium (Gomes-Carneiro et al 2005). In contrast, extracts of chamomile have demonstrated antimicrobial activity against E. coli (Ceska et al 1992). The growth of 5. aureus, Streptococcus mutans and group B streptococcus was inhibited by chamomile extract at concentrations of 10 mg/mL (Cinco et al 1983). In

vitro tests using apigenin have identified inhibitory activity against HIV activation, possibly by affecting viral transcription (Critchfield et al 1997, Trovato et al 2000). Additionally, a semi-purified extract of chamomile has been found to inhibit HSV in vitro (Suganda etal 1983).

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