Fish oils induce a series of chemical changes in the body that ultimately produce an anti-inflammatory effect. They partially replace AA in inflammatory cell membranes, and compete with it for the enzymes cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX), leading to reduced production of pro-inflammatory metabolites such as 2-series PGs and 4-series leukotrienes (Calder 2002, 2003, Cleland et al 2003).
Besides this, fish oils suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, according to both animal and human studies and reduce the expression of cell Fish oils 428
adhesion molecules, which are critical in recruiting circulating leucocytes to the vascular endothelium (Calder 2002, Din et al 2004).
According to new research, it appears that anti-inflammatory activity may vary among different sources of fish oils due to variations in EPA/DHA content (Bhattacharya et al 2006).
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