Studies conducted with various molecular, cellular and whole animal models have revealed that leaf extracts of G. biloba may have anticancer (chemopreventive) properties that are related to its antioxidant, anti-angiogenic and gene-regulatory actions (DeFeudis et al 2003). Both the flavonoid and terpenoid constituents are thought to be responsible for many of these mechanisms, meaning that the whole extract is required for activity. Studies in humans have found that ginkgo extracts inhibit the formation of radiation-induced (chromosome-damaging) clastogenic factors and UV-induced oxidative stress, both effects that may contribute to the overall chemopreventive activity. As a result of these observations, there has been a call by some academics for ginkgo to be more widely investigated and used in the prevention and treatment of cancer (Eli & Fasciano 2006).
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