Broad-spectrum antibacterial activity has been demonstrated for the leaf extracts (aqueous, ethanol, and methanol) (Grover & Yadav 2004). In vitro antimicrobial activity occurred against Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella dysenterae and against Streptomyces griseus (Grover & Yadav 2004, Ogata et al 1991, Omoregbe et al 1996). In a phase II study, the leaf extracts inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro, using the BACTEC 460 susceptibility test method (Frame et al 1998).
Tests with an extract of the entire plant demonstrated antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica (Grover &Yadav 2004) and a fruit extract exhibited activity against Helicobacter pylori (Yesilada et al 1999).
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