Know Your Healthy Berries

Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

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Sweet and Crunchy Growing Fruits Berries and Nuts

S omegrown fruit, berries, and nuts take more time and care than some V rn other kinds of gardening. Although soft fruits like strawberries, grapes, and raspberries yield delicious results within few months or less, tree fruits and nuts require more patience and can take several years to be productive. Fruits and nuts also require a different sort of preparation than trees and bushes that don't bear them. But at harvest time, the work is all worth it In almost every region of North America, you can find a type of fruit or nut (or variety of fruit or nut) that's well-adapted and fairly easy to grow. Note Many gardeners collectively group fruits, berries and nuts together as a topic because the cultivating methods are similar for all of them. So for the sake of making the descriptions in this chapters simple, when I mention fruit, please keep in mind that I mean fruit, berries, and nuts unless I say otherwise. Also, all of the fruit-bearing plants in this chapter, except strawberries,...

Feeding ecology and diet

The diets of all members of the family consist primarily of insects, other arthropods, and especially spiders. Other prey items include crustaceans, snails, and harvestmen (Opiliones). Sap (golden-crowned kinglet) and nectar (several African and Asian species, especially Prima) are occasionally consumed. Prima hodgsonii and Orthotomus sutorius are known to carry pollen attached to the feathers of the throat and forehead it and other nectar-feeding species may be important pollinators in the tropics. Some of the larger reed-warblers (including Acrocephalus arundinaceus, A. rufesecens, and A. stentoreus) occasionally take small frogs and fish. Young sylviids are fed almost exclusively arthropods, usually soft-bodied larvae and small insects, but in some cases receive berries as well. Variation in prey size and type is found among sympatric foraging guilds. During the pre-migratory period of Palearctic Sylvia warblers, individuals shift their diet from largely insects to largely berries...

Pollination syndromes

Most Gentianaceae have dry, capsular fruits, and this could be one main reason why the fleshy-fruited Potaliinae had been excluded from the family for so long. Potalia, Anthocleista, and Fagraea almost always bear fleshy, indehiscent berries (rarely dehiscent owing to the enormous size of the fruit in Fagraea auriculata Leenhouts, 1962), as do some genera of Loganiaceae sensu stricto (Gardneria and Strychnos). The fleshiness of Potaliinae berries appears to correlate with congenital syncarpy, a trait only rarely seen among other gentians (i.e., dry-fruited Aripuana Struwe et al., 1997), which characteristically have postgenitally fused ovaries. The state of ovary fusion in fleshy-fruited species of Crawfurdia and Tripterospermum (of

Physical characteristics

Berrypeckers vary from the small tit-like Arfak berrypecker (Oreocharis arfaki) to the biggest member of the family, the thrush-like crested berrypecker (Paramythia montium). They have simple tongues, elongated straight bills, and lack specializations of the gut that those flowerpeckers that deal with mistletoe berries have. Melanocharis spp. and Rhamphocharis crassirostris have pectoral tufts.

Megalaima haemacephala

Diet Their diet consists of figs, custard-apples, guavas, mangos, and papal fruits, along with smaller berries and many types of insects such as beetles, crickets, mantids (plural of mantis large, predatory insects), and various insect larvae. They tap and chip away tree bark in order to find invertebrates (animals without a backbone).

Pogoniulus chrysoconus

Diet Yellow-fronted tinkerbirds eat small berries and bright red, orange, and purple fruits, such as mistletoe berries and figs, as well as insects, beetles, and other invertebrates. They move quietly through foliage and dead leaves while pecking at prey or taking off berries and fruits. Yellow-fronted tinkerbirds eat small berries and fruits, as well as insects, beetles, and other invertebrates. (P. Ward Bruce Coleman Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Yellow-fronted tinkerbirds eat small berries and fruits, as well as insects, beetles, and other invertebrates. (P. Ward Bruce Coleman Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Behavior And Reproduction

Members of larger species do not breed until they are three or four years old. Males often court females by feeding them berries. Often, the pair also preens one another. Most toucans nest in tree holes. They may remove chunks of very rotten wood but do not really dig a hole like woodpeckers do. Large toucans often use natural holes. Small toucans use abandoned woodpecker holes. One pair may use the same hole year after year. Both parents incubate the white eggs for about sixteen days. They also share the work of brooding the nestlings and bringing insects. The young birds fledge, grow their flying feathers, after about fifty days, but the parents keep feeding them for another eight to ten days.

Pruning for shape and rejuvenation

Knowing when to prune shrubs that you enjoy for both fruits and flowers (such as viburnum and rose) is hard because you're forced to sacrifice either some of the flowers or some of the berries or hips. Your best bet is to split the difference Do some trimming right after bloom and cut the plant a bit more in the fall (in the case of viburnums, you can call the fall pruning berry harvesting the berries are very decorative, nice for holiday swags and wreaths).

North American porcupine

Porcupines are vegetarians, dining on foliage for much of the year and turning to the inner bark of oaks and pines in the winter months. They are also known to eat seeds, fruits, nuts, berries, and plant stems. Their chisel-like teeth scrape away the tougher, outer bark, then slice off even bits of inner bark for consumption. Cellulose-eating bacteria in the porcupine's gut assist the digestion of plant material. Mothers and young feed together, but they are otherwise solitary feeders. Feeding generally occurs at night, but occasionally they will feed during the day.

Waxwings Silky Flycatchers And People

Scientists have noted that waxwing tail bands have been both yellow and orange for the last thirty years. Prior to that time, their tail bands were always yellow. The scientists believe that waxwings have been eating a lot of berries from the introduced (not native) European honeysuckle, which was introduced about then. Scientists think that the birds are being affected by pigments in the orange fruit.

Pharmacological Toxicological Effects 41 Antimicrobial Activity

Controversy exists on the pharmacological mechanism of cranberry. In the mid-19th century, German researchers discovered hippuric acid in the urine of people who ate cranberries (2). From the 1920s through the 1970s, many researchers thought that hippuric acid produced a bacteriostatic effect by acidifying the urine (11,14,15). The ability of cranberry to prevent renal calculi has also been attributed to its ability to decrease urine pH and inhibit bacterial growth (7,8,16). Not all studies documented a change in urinary pH with cranberry administration, so a parallel line of thinking suggested that E. coli is responsible for 85 of urinary tract infections (20). Virtually all E. coli express type 1 fimbrae, and most uropathogenic E. coli express P fimbriae, which are responsible for mediating the adherence of the bacteria to uroepithelial cells (18). Fructose is responsible for inhibiting the adherence of type-1-fimbriated E. coli, whereas a polymeric compound inhibits P-fim-briated...

Troglodytes troglodytes

Diet The winter wren is primarily an insectivore, or insect-eater, but it is occasionally known to eat spiders and rarely known to eat juniper berries. These birds feed on the forest floor and sometimes along stream banks, scurrying through leaves and brush in a mouse-like manner.

Products Available

Available products include tea, 1 5 tincture in 45 alcohol, 1 1 liquid extract in 25 alcohol (6), and capsules of 250, 455, and 510 mg. The French Pharmacopoeia requires 45 ethanol for the fluid extract and 60 ethanol for the tincture (8). It is recommended that 0.5-1 mL of liquid extract or 1-2 mL of tincture be taken three times a day (6). The tea is made from 0.3-1 g of dried berries infused in hot water and taken three times a day (4,6). A typical therapeutic dose of extract, standardized to contain 1.8 vitexin-4 rhamno-side, is 100-250 mg three times daily. A standardized extract containing 18 procyanidolic oligomers (oligomeric procyanidns) is dosed at 250-500 mg daily (9).

Regulatory Status

Originally, all preparations of hawthorn were approved under one German Commission E monograph based on historical experience. However, in 1993, the preparations were reevaluated and it was concluded that sufficient scientific evidence was lacking to justify use of the flowers, leaves, and berries as individual compounds. As a result, there are currently four hawthorn monographs three Unapproved monographs for the berry, flower, and leaf individually and an Approved monograph for the flower with leaves. In addition, the Approved monograph has only one approved indication treatment of decreasing cardiac output according to functional stage II of the NYHA (11). In Canada, hawthorn carries new drug status and is not approved, as self-treatment of cardiovascular conditions is deemed inappropriate. Hawthorn is not on the General Sales List in the United Kingdom. In France, the flower and flowering top are permitted for oral use, and in Switzerland, the leaf and flower are permitted as...

Examining the types of fruits

Another thing you might want to consider when looking at types of fruit is how long you have to wait before getting a yield. For instance, groundcovering fruits are annuals, at least in a climate that has frost, while strawberries are perennials, but both produce fruit the first year. Most shrub fruits take two or three years to yield substantial amounts of fruit. Fruit trees take a few to several years to bear, depending on variety and type of rootstock they're on. Dwarf fruit trees tend to bear sooner, within 3 years, while trees on standard root-stocks can take 4 or more years.

Getting the lowdown on chill factors

You can find many named cultivars (cultivated varieties) within each type of fruit, and you need to choose one suitable to your climate and growing conditions. Some fruit plants are obviously better-adapted to certain climates than others. Avocados don't work as a crop in cold regions some pears and raspberries are better in mild areas, and others are adapted to Northern climes most apples (but not all) like to be cold and North, too. Although you may be able to push your boundaries or cheat a bit in your garden with smaller plants such as perennials, coddling a more substantial resident such as big bush, vine, or tree isn't always practical. (Check out Chapter 3 for info on growing seasons and plant hardiness zones.)

Background And Relevant Pharmacokinetics

There are two sources of thiamine dietary and a bacterial source whereby it is synthesised by the normal intestinal microflora. Thiamine is absorbed from the small intestine by a saturable rate-limiting transport mechanism. The absorption of thiamine in the gastrointestinal tract can be impaired by the presence of naturally occurring thiaminases that are found in raw fish or polyhydroxyphenols found in certain food and beverages for example, coffee, tea, blueberries, red cabbage and brussel sprouts (Groff & Gropper 2000).

Dealing with fruit pests

Birds These flying scavengers adore berries and strike with precise timing, at the peak of ripe perfection. Don't allow this pilfering Cover the plants after flowering is over (so you don't thwart pollination) but before green fruit begins to ripen. Use plastic netting, cheesecloth, or anything that covers the plants but still lets in light, air, and water. For

Rats mice and relatives I

Brown Lemming

A meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) eating strawberries. (Photo by Dwight R. Kuhn. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) A meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) eating strawberries. (Photo by Dwight R. Kuhn. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) The bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) harvests seeds, berries, and nuts and stores them in underground caches. (Photo by Ernest A. Janes. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) The bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) harvests seeds, berries, and nuts and stores them in underground caches. (Photo by Ernest A. Janes. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Systematics of lower Metazoa

Welding Art

The triploblasts, or Triploblastica (Greek triplo three, blast bud), refer to phyla that possess three embryonic germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) formed during gas-trulation, though mesoderm is probably not homologous between protostomes and deuterostomes. Prior to 1985, the phylum Ctenophora was generally considered a diploblastic phylum because true mesoderm (entomesoderm) was not found however, subsequent studies have revealed the presence of mesoderm during embryogeny. Ctenophora is considered the most primitive of the triploblastic phyla because it is hypothesized to have originated prior to the evolution of the bilateral body plan. Ctenophora is a small phylum of approximately 80 gelatinous animals known as comb jellies and sea gooseberries. Their paleontological history extends back to the Cambrian. The phylum is well defined by the presence of adhesive colloblasts, eight rows of ciliary plates, a unique apical sense organ, and a cydippid larval stage....

Hane Sengi Sexe Photoj

Sahara Desert Animals

The rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens) eats termites, ants, worms, roots, berries, and fruits. (Photo by Kenneth W. Fink. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) The rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens) eats termites, ants, worms, roots, berries, and fruits. (Photo by Kenneth W. Fink. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Reproductive biology

A hazel dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) foraging for berries. (Photo by Stephen Dalton Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) A hazel dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) foraging for berries. (Photo by Stephen Dalton Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Pharmacological Toxicological Effects 51 Cardiovascular Effects

Hawthorn extracts purportedly dilate coronary blood vessels, decrease blood pressure, increase myocardial contractility, and lower serum cholesterol (9). Benefits have been demonstrated in patients with heart failure (10). In patients with stage II New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart failure, doses of 160-900 mg day of the aqueous-alcoholic extract for up to 56 days showed an increase in exercise tolerance, decrease in rate pressure product, and increased ejection fraction (11). Degenring and colleagues, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, studied a standardized extract of fresh Crataegus berries (Crataegisan ) for the treatment of patients with Tincture of Crataegus (TCR), made from hawthorn berries, was shown to have a hypocholesterolemic effect on rats fed 0.5 mL 100 g body weight for 6 weeks. These findings prompted a study that examined the ability of TCR to increase low-density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to liver plasma membranes in rats fed an...

Peppers Black White Green Pink Longpippali Cubeb Negro Tasmanian

Cubeb pepper, also called Javanese pepper, derives its name from the Indonesian word cabe meaning pepper. It is indigenous to Indonesia and West Africa. These are small berries of a pepper relative, and are similar in appearance to black pepper except that they have a tail. They are also sometimes confused with cassia buds. Cubeb pepper was first brought to Africa and the West by Arab traders who used it to season their meat dishes. Later, it became a popular spice in North Africa. In Benin, West Africa, it is referred to as piment pays, meaning pepper of the country. Ashanti peppers are false cubeb peppers. Form pepper is a dried berry called peppercorn and comes whole, cracked, or ground. Ground pepper is available coarse or fine and is a mixture of light and dark particles. The black, white, green, and red peppercorns are berries picked at different stages of growth and processed using different methods. White peppercorns are berries stripped of the outer hull and picked when near...

Raccoons and relatives

Ailurus Fulgens Illustration

Procyonids evolved in the tropical environments of South and Central America. Their morphology and habits reveal numerous adaptations for warm climates including naked soles, long digits, diet relying heavily on fruits and berries, and tree climbing skills. Several aspects of their phylogeny (origin) remain unresolved. First, the position of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens, with the Procyonidae (but the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca in the Ursidae) is not universally accepted. In the past, the red panda has been considered under a separate family Ailuridae with the giant panda. Second, the number of species of raccoons (genus Procyon) seems to vary as many previously recognized island species such as Bahaman raccoon (Procyon maynardi), Guadeloupe raccoon (Procyon minor), and the extinct Barbados raccoon (Procyon gloveralleni) have recently been reconsidered variants of the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor). Similarly, five species of olingos (genus Bas-saricyon) are currently...

Unique Kiwi Parenting

Little spotted kiwis have a way of raising their young that is unique among kiwis. The male incubates the eggs for seventy days. Once the chicks hatch, the female helps in the rearing. Adult little spotted kiwis do not feed their young but the males and females escort their chicks into the forest to search for food, mainly berries and worms. With other species, the chicks are left on their own to find food after hatching. The little spotted kiwi is one of the most endangered of all kiwis. Human destruction of their habitat is the primary reason for their decline. Once common on the mainland of New Zealand, only about 1,000 remain off the mainland on Tiritiri Matangi Island, Red Mercury Island, Mana Island, Long Island, Hen Island, and Kapiti Island. They also survive on the Kaori Kiwi Reserve in Wellington as part of the government's captive breeding program. centipedes, spiders, cockroaches, praying mantises, snails, locusts, crickets, grasshoppers, and insect larvae. They will eat...

How Much Sulfur to

The amount of sulfur you need to add to your soil to keep acid-loving plants like blueberries happy depends on the type of soil in your garden, as well as the pH you start with. Sandy soils typically need less sulfur to lower pH levels, while loam and clay soils take more sulfur to change their pH. If you're

Arthur M Glenberg David Havas Raymond Becker and Mike Rinck

In contrast to the dictionary-like theories of Collins and Loftus (1975), Burgess and Lund (1997) and many others (e.g., Anderson, Matessa, & Lebiere, 1997 Kintsch, 1988), recent theoretical (e.g., Barsalou, 1999 Glenberg, 1997) and empirical (Glenberg & Kaschak, 2002 Pecher et al., 2003 Stanfield & Zwaan, 2001) work within the embodiment framework has demonstrated how mature language use is grounded in bodily states of action and perception. Consider, for example, Pecher et al. (2003) who demonstrated a perceptual basis to property verification. Participants responded whether or not an object (e.g., a blender) has a particular property (e.g., loud). Pecher et al. found that when the perceptual dimension probed on the current trial (e.g., LEAVES-rustle probes the auditory dimension) was the same as the dimension probed on the previous trial (e.g., BLENDER-loud probes the auditory dimension), responding was faster than when the perceptual dimension probed on the previous trial was...


Historical note Bilberries have been used as a food for many centuries and are valued for their taste and high nutritional content. They are still commonly used to make jams, pies, syrups and beverages. Medicinally, the berries have been used internally to treat diarrhoea and haemorrhoids and externally for inflammation of the mouth and mucous membranes as they have significant astringent activity. According to folklore, World War II British Royal Air Force pilots noticed that their night vision seemed to improve after consuming bilberries or bilberry preserves, sparking a renewed interest in the medicinal properties of the fruits.


Another divergent and controversial gentian group comprises Potalia, Anthocleista, and Fagraea, which were for a long time assigned to the Loganiaceae as tribe Potalieae. Jussieu's early perceptions on Potalia (see above) were not heeded by later system-builders, including von Martius (1827), who erected Potaliaceae for all three genera. Fagraea was, ironically, the easiest to fit within the gentian bauplan, as was recognized by Bureau (1856) and Fosberg and Sachet (1974, 1980). Cladistic analyses of non-molecular data placed Potaliinae, now recognized at subtribal level, within Gentianaceae (Bremer & Struwe, 1992 Struwe et al., 1994 Struwe & Albert, 1997), but owing to their shared possession of mainly generalized (plesiomorphic) phenotypic features only the combined presence of seco-iridoids and xanthones has rendered the Potaliinae decisively gentian. This relationship was strongly corroborated by molecular evidence (Downie & Palmer, 1992 Olmstead et al, 1993 Struwe et al, 1998...

The Food Industry

Farming and food wholesaling are major businesses in the United States. In 2004, U.S. farmers harvested 279,253 bushels of barley (mostly for beer brewing), nearly 12 million bushels of corn, more than 115,000 bushels of oats, and more than 2 million bushels of wheat. In 2003, U.S. farmers produced more than 21.5 million hundred-weights of strawberries, nearly 18 million hundred-weights of dry beans, and nearly 20 million hundred-weights of broccoli (USDA, 2003). Food wholesaling accounted for 589 billion of sales in 1997. Dairy, poultry, meat, and fresh fruit and vegetable sales accounted for nearly three-fourths of this business packaged frozen foods accounted for the rest (USDA, 2005).

Least chipmunk

Forages primarily for seeds, nuts, berries, and acorns. Fruit and berries are harvested only for their seeds, the rest is discarded. Also will prey upon insects, bird's eggs, and chicks. Instead of storing fat like other hibernating rodents such as marmots, least chipmunks store seeds in their winter chamber. They interrupt torpor throughout the winter to feed from these seed caches.


Flavonols are the most ubiquitous flavonoids in plants, with the main representatives being quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and isohamnetin, which are predominantly present as glycosides bound to a variety of sugar moieties. The richest sources are onions, curly kale, leeks, broccoli, and blueberries and are present at levels of approximately 30 mg kg fresh weight although in certain circumstances can reach in excess of 1.2 g kg fresh weight. Red wine and tea are also rich sources.


The red to purple colored anthocyanidins are responsible for a good portion of color in fruits and flowers. They are only present as glycosides or anthocyanins and their color is pH dependent. In the human diet, anthocyanidins are present in red wine, certain varieties of cereals, certain leafy and root vegetables (e.g., aubergines, cabbage, beans, onions, and radishes) and most abundantly in fruit. The content is generally proportional to the color intensity and may reach values of 2-4 g kg fresh weight in blackberries and black currants. They are found mainly in the skin, except where the flesh is also colored.

Broadleaf evergreens

Unlike their needled counterparts, many broadleaf evergreens sport attractive flowers and fruits (or berries), so you may get some spring or early-summer glory. And some broadleaf evergreens even provide colorful late-season interest that can rival the changing colors of deciduous trees. To make the most of this quality, make sure late frosts don't damage the buds (so pick a variety

Picoides borealis

Diet Red-cockaded woodpeckers eat ants, beetles, caterpillars, roaches, wood-boring insects, and spiders found on tree surfaces, especially pine trees, and by scaling back loose bark. They eat earworms off of corn in the summer, along with berries and nuts. Males forage on limbs and trunk of pines above the lowest branches. Females forage on trunk below the lowest branch.


Proanthocyanidins are dimers, oligomers, and polymers of flavan-3-ols and are formed by enzymatic or chemical condensation. These so-called condensed tannins contribute to astringent tastes in fruits (e.g., grapes, peaches, apples, pears, berries etc.), beverages (e.g., wine, cider, tea, beer etc.) and chocolate. At a lower degree of polymerization they are colorless and bitter to taste, but with greater polymerization the taste becomes astringent and the color yellow to brown. Proanthocyanidins purely consisting of catechin and epicatechin monomers are called procyanidins, which are the most common type of proanthocyanidins. Less abundant are the prodelphinidins, which include both epicatechin and gallocatechin monomers.

Pitangus sulphuratus

Diet Great kiskadees eat insects, but also will eat small fish, tadpoles, lizards, and mice. They will dive into the water after food, which they bring to their perch and beat against a branch until it is dead before tearing it apart. If they cannot find their preferred food, great kiskadees will eat fruits and berries.

Cotinga cayana

Spangled cotingas prefer fruit and berries, and often search for food in the same trees as other members of the cotinga family. (Illustration by Emily Damstra. Reproduced by permission.) Spangled cotingas prefer fruit and berries, and often search for food in the same trees as other members of the cotinga family. (Illustration by Emily Damstra. Reproduced by permission.) Diet Like all cotingas, these birds prefer fruit and berries. They often search for food in the same trees as other members of the cotinga family.

Hypocolius ampelinus

Diet Gray hypocoliuses eat mostly fruit, but sometimes insects as well. They rarely go to the ground, instead looking through foliage, leaves, for food. They are known for their careful and deliberate feeding behavior, using their long tails as a lever to balance as they extend their bodies to reach fruit and berries. When eating fruit, the bird chews the pulp and spits out pits, larger seeds, and skin.

Nitric Oxide

In terms of the regulation of developmental processes, NO has been shown to inhibit ethylene biosynthesis in pea leaves, bananas and strawberries and so can influence tissue senescence and fruit ripening (Leshem and Pinchasov, 2000). In addition, it has been found that ABA induces rapid NO synthesis in epidermal tissues and NO enhances ABA-induced stomatal closure (Schroeder et al., 2001). The demonstration that NO can reduce ethylene biosynthesis and interact with other hormones provides for many potential modulating roles for NO during the development of higher plants (see Neill et al., 2003).


Medications Associated with Hematuria Warfarin, aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, phenobarbital, allopurinol, phenytoin, cyclophosphamide. Causes of Red Urine Pyridium, phenytoin, ibuprofen, cascara laxatives, levodopa, methyldopa, quinine, rifampin, berries, flava beans, food coloring, rhubarb, beets, hemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria.

Auriparus flaviceps

Diet Verdins eat invertebrates (such as insects and their larvae and eggs, and spiders), seeds, and fruits such as wild berries. Much of their water is obtained through the eating of fruits and insects. They actively forage for food among twigs, leaves, and buds, sometimes hanging upside down while clinging to twigs and leaves.

Melospiza melodia

Diet Song sparrows feed mostly on insects (and their larvae LARvee ) and other invertebrates in the summer, but switch to mostly seeds in the winter. They also eat grains, berries, and some fruits, mostly from the ground or by picking food off of trees, bushes, and other vegetation. Coastal species catch small mollusks and crustaceans (hard-shelled creatures).

Lonchura punctulata

Diet The birds eat grass seeds, especially rice, from off of the ground and on live plants. They also eat small berries. Sometimes, they eat dead animals along roadsides. When human trash dumps are available, they are seen removing scraps of food, such as bread, from the area.


The anthocyanins present in bilberry are thought to cross the blood-brain barrier (21). To date, no human studies have been published regarding the pharmacokinetics of the anthocyanins present in bilberry. However, studies have been conducted using other sources of anthocyanins, such as blueberries, elderberries, and blackcurrant juice. Mazza and colleagues (22) studied the absorption of anthocyanins from a freeze-dried blueberry preparation in five human subjects. Following administration of 100 g of blueberry supplement containing 1.2 g of anthocyanins, serum concentrations of 11 anthocyanins were measured at 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours postdose. Serum concentrations of each of the anthocyanins ranged from 0.23 to 3.68 ng mL, suggesting very low absorption of anthocyanidins from this preparation. However, urinary excretion was not measured, precluding an accurate assessment of absorption. The concentration of total anthocyanins ranged from 6.6 ng mL at 1 hour to 9.6, 12.1, and 13.1 ng mL...


How Prepared and Consumed lavender is not commonly used as a spice but the French enjoy it in many dishes such as aioli, bouillabiase, ratatouille, meat dishes, and soups. Flowers are candied and also flavors fruit salads, sweets, and desserts. Lavender pairs well with strawberries, mango, guava, blueberries, vanilla, coocnut, white wine, citrus, rosemary, mints, basil, clove, cinnamon, shallots, chives, fennel, star anise, rose, or saffron. It is used to flavor cakes, biscotti, ice cream, syrups, liquers, preserves, lamb, cookies, and steamed or broiled fish. Lavandin and lavender oil is used to flavor baked products, frozen ice cream, confectionary, puddings, beverages, and teas.


The most recent technology to be developed in agriculture is Aeroponics, a method in which a plant's roots are grown suspended mid-air. The plants are generally suspended from baskets (similar to those in which strawberries are packaged) at the top of a closed trough or cylinder. With the plants suspended in this manner, all essential nourishment can be provided to the roots by spraying them with a nutrient solution. Since the roots are suspended in mid-air, they receive the maximum amount of Oxygen possible. This method is also the most nutrient-efficient because you need only provide what the plants require, and any nutrient that is not absorbed is drained and recycled much like the in previous methods. Pictured at right is an interesting aeroponic application whereby plants are grown in styrofoam sheets that form an enclosed A frame. Inside the A are misters that spray the roots as described above.

Functions In Plants

However, despite the abundance of calcium, plants suffer from a range of calcium-deficiency disorders that affect tissues or organs that are naturally low in calcium. These include blossom-end rot (BER) of tomato (Figure 5.4 and Figure 5.5), pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), and water melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruits, bitter pit of apple (Malus pumila Mill.), black heart of celery (Apium graveolens L.), internal rust spot in potato tubers and carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots, internal browning of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L.), internal browning of pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr.), and tip burn of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) (22,37,38). Recently, it has been suggested that the disorder 'crease' in navel and Valencia oranges (Citrus aurantium L.) may be caused by calcium deficiency in the albedo tissue of the rind (39).


Myrtle leaves, branches, and fruits have been used since Biblical times to flavor smoked or roasted meats in the Eastern Mediterranean islands of Sardinia, Corsica, and Crete and western Asia. The dried berries were used in the Mediterranean as a substitute for black pepper. Form myrtle seeds are purple-black berries that are used whole or coarsely ground. Its leaf is used whole or chopped. Properties myrtle berries are sweet, with juniper and rosemary-like flavors. The leaves have spicy, astringent, and bitter taste with a refreshing, fragrant, and orangelike aroma. Lemon myrtle has a refreshing aroma and taste. How Prepared and Consumed in the Mediterranean, the berries were initially used to flavor wine but are now more commonly used in desserts, liqueurs, and sweet dishes. The leaves are used in stews, roast meats, stuffings, salads, and meat ragouts. The leaves are used to wrap wild game or roast pork before cooking. Therapeutic Uses and Folklore the berries are used as an...


Pygmy possums are only found in two small areas between 4,265 and 7,300 ft (1,300 and 2,230 m) on the peak of Mt. Kosciusko, the highest mountain in Australia. Its habitat mostly is subalpine, shrubland, and meadows. Burramys has to cope with at least three months of snow cover, during which time it tends to live under the snow, climbing within and between rock crevices, or climbing into bushes to collect seeds and berries. Burramys also stores fat under its skin, and develops a thick fur in autumn. The heaviest animal ever found in autumn weighed 3 oz (82 g). Adults tend to enter hibernation earlier than juveniles, and can remain torpid for periods of up to 20 days. Another means of energy conservation is communal nesting. These nests are normally of either all males or all females, and can be found throughout the year, except when females breed. The social organization of Bur-ramys is more complex than expected in such a small mammal. Up to 10 females (probably related kin such as...

Detecting Light

However, as important as light is in this latter sense, organisms do not need to perceive light or do so in any particular way, even for many of the uses just listed. This is shown, as we will see, by the great variation in what animals, even closely related ones, can see. Simple detection of light without regard for pattern can be sufficient for some, whereas others depend on fine resolution of specific objects (prey) or aspects of objects (berries on a tree). Some use light only to detect motion.

Chaste tree

Historical note Chaste tree has been used since ancient times for a variety of gynaecological conditions, such as aiding expulsion of the placenta after birth and promoting menstruation. Leaves of the chaste tree were worn byvestal virgins in ancient Rome as a symbol of chastity and it was used during that time to promote celibacy. The berries have been used to reduce fever and headaches, stimulate perspiration and to 'check violent sexual desires' in monasteries. A commercially preparation of chaste tree has been available in Germany for over 50 years and it is still commonly used for menstrual irregularities.

Chlamydera maculata

Behavior and reproduction Spotted bowerbirds build avenue bowers beneath low bushes or shrubs. The nests are made from grasses and are often 3,300 to 6,600 feet (1,000 to 2,000 meters) apart from each other. The walls are about 7.8 to 19.7 inches (20 to 50 centimeters) high. Up to 1,000 or more decorations such as berries, seedpods, pebbles and stones, bones, snail shells, and glass are attached to the bowers. Adult males occasionally make loud, harsh churrings and other notes (including vocal mimicry) in order to make themselves known.

Lanai hookbill

Individual shot by Munro in 1913 had been feeding on fruit of the opuhe (Urera sandwichensis), Munro speculated it also fed on the akoko (Euphorbia lorifolia). Dissection of the stomach found native berries, but hooked bill and relatively weak jaw musculature suggest it may have fed mostly on land snails.