Instant Remedies for Chronic BV
Clinical data support the use of tea tree oil for vaginitis and cervicitis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis or Candida albicans (WHO 2003). An open study found that intravaginal application of tampons saturated in a diluted emulsified solution successfully healed vaginitis and cervicitis (n 130) caused by T. vaginalis. Vaginal pessaries containing 0.2 g essential oil inserted nightly eradicated symptoms of leucorrhoea and burning in 86 of women with C. a b 'cans vaginitis after 30 days in with 75 becoming free of infection. A case report shows that a 5-day course of 200 mg tea tree oil in a vegetable oil base inserted into the vagina may also be successful at treating vaginal candidiasis (Blackwell 1991). As used here, tea tree oil treatment eradicated anaerobic bacterial vaginosis, confirmed upon examination 1 month later.
Candida is the second most common diagnosis associated with vaginal symptoms. It is found in 25 of asymptomatic women. Fungal infections account for 33 of all vaginal infections. B. Patients with diabetes mellitus or immunosuppressive conditions such as infection with the HIV are at increased risk for candidal vaginitis. Candidal vaginitis occurs in 25-70 of women after antibiotic therapy.
Bacterial vaginosis develops when a shift in the normal vaginal ecosystem causes replacement of the usually predominant lactobacilli with mixed bacterial flora. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common type of vaginitis. It is found in 10-25 of patients in gynecologic clinics.
C andidal vaginitis causes a nonmalodorous, thick, adherent, white vaginal discharge that appears cottage cheese-like. E. The normal pH level is not usually altered with candidal vaginitis. Microscopic examination of vaginal discharge diluted with saline (wet-mount) and 10 KOH preparations will reveal hyphal forms or budding yeast cells. Some yeast infections are not detected by microscopy because there are relatively few numbers of organisms. Confirmation of candidal vaginiti s by culture is not recommended. Candida on Pap smear is not a sensitive finding because the yeast is a constituent of the normal vaginal flora.
Recurrent pain during intercourse occurring for the first time within or subsequent to the menopausal transition is typically attributed to vulvovaginal and urogenital atrophy (also referred to as atrophic vaginitis) (83). These conditions are manifestations of tissue aging, cytological changes, and chemical transformations within the vagina, urethra, and bladder, which result from declining levels of endogenously produced estrogens at menopause (84,85). Both the DSM-IV-TR (3) and the ICD-10 (4) specifically mention this problem but do not classify it as dyspareunia. In the DSM-IV-TR, it would be termed a sexual dysfunction due to a general medical condition, whereas in the ICD-10, it is classified as postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis. These classifications and descriptions appear to be based on clinical experience since there is, in fact, very little systematic research evidence to support a strong link between declining estrogen levels, vulvovaginal atrophy, and recurrent pain...
Although Sap2 is known to be immuno-genic and can induce antibody responses, the protective potential of Sap antibodies in vivo remains unclear. De Bernardis et al. (1997) showed a protective effect of anti-Sap2 IgA antibodies in experimental vaginitis in rats. This not only demonstrated that Sap2 contributed to vaginal infections and was a target of the host immune response, but also suggested that anti-Sap IgA antibodies could afford protection against C. albicans infections at mucosal sites in vivo.
Probiotics are widely used to decrease the frequency of recurrent bacterial vaginosis and candidal vulvovaginitis, and have undergone clinical testing that supports this use. They are administered both orally and intravaginally. Additionally, lactobacilli play a significant role in the prevention of UTIs. One study using intravaginal administration of probiotics such as Lactobacillus GR-1 and B-54 or RC-14 strains twice weekly for 2 weeks and then monthly for 2 months demonstrated that treatment resulted in 45 less UTIs than placebo and improved the maintenance of normal flora (Reid & Burton 2002). A significant reduction in UTI rate was also reported in a randomised double-blind study involving 55 premenopausal women (Reid 2001 b). The study investigated the effectiveness of treatment for 1 year with a weekly suppository containing either 0.5 g L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum B-54 or a Lactobacillus growth factor. Treatment resulted in the UTI rate decreasing by 73 and 79 ,...
Using a germ-free mouse model of oral candidiasis, we have observed that adoptive transfer of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells after intragastric (i.g.) immunisation with whole cells of C. albicans or C. glabrata, and spleen cells after intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunisation, lead to significantly reduced colonisation of C. albicans cells in saliva after challenge (Rahman and Challacombe, 1995) though the protective antigens were not identified. CD8+ cells from MLNs, but not CD4+ cells, were responsible for this effect after i.g. immunisation, whereas after i.p. immunisation both CD8+ and CD4+ cells from the spleen were responsible for reduced colonisation of mice. These and other studies (Fidel et al., 1995a,b) indicate the importance of local and systemic CMI in the protection against mucosal candidiasis, though antibodies have also been shown to be protective in experimental vaginitis (De Bernardis et al., 1997).
One-third of patients with vaginal symptoms will not have laboratory evidence of bacterial vaginosis, Candida, or Trichomonas. Other causes of the vaginal symptoms include cervicitis, allergic reactions, and vulvodynia. B. Atrophic vaginitis should be considered in postmenopausal patients if the mucosa appears pale and thin and wet-mount findings are negative.
Symptoms in females include mild abdominal pain, intermittent bleeding, vaginal discharge, or dysuria-pyuria syndrome. The cervix can appear normal or exhibit edema, erythema, friability, or mucopurulent discharge. In prepubertal girls, vaginitis can occur secondary to infection of transitional cell epithelium by C. trachomatis. In contrast, the squamous epithelium of the adult vagina is not susceptible to chlamydiae, and vaginal discharge generally reflects endocervical infection. The definition of pelvic inflammatory disease is a sexually transmitted infection that ascends from the vagina and cervix to involve the uterus, ovaries, and peritoneal tissues as well as the fallopian tubes. Lower abdominal pain, usually bilateral, is the most common presenting symptom. Pain may be associated with an abnormal vaginal discharge, abnormal uterine bleeding, dysuria, dyspareunia, nausea, vomiting, fever, or other constitutional symptoms. It is more commonly present in a subclinical form that...
Tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea cruris A trial comparing the effects of three different strengths of ajoene cream (0.4 , 0.6 and 1 ) with 1 terbinafine applied twice daily found the cure rate to be 72 for 0.6 ajoene, 100 for 1 ajoene, and 94 for 1 terbinafine after 60 days (Ledezma et al 2000). Vaginitis Taken internally as a 'natural antibiotic' or applied topically in a cream base, garlic is used to treat vaginitis. The considerable antibacterial activity of garlic provides a theoretical basis for its use in this condition, but controlled studies are not available to determine effectiveness.
Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan that is sexually transmitted. It produces a vaginitis characterized by an inflammatory Pap smear with numerous neutrophils, strawberry-colored mucosa, and discharge (leukorrhea). Postcoital bleeding is a common complaint. In a wet preparation of the vaginal discharge, the tumbling motility of the organism can be observed. E. Ciardnerella vaginalis is a bacterial infection often associated with Mobiluncus or Bac-lernides. It is not sexually transmitted. It produces a vaginitis characterized by no inflammatory Pap smear, no changes in the mucosa, and discharge. In the sniff test of the vaginal discharge, a drop of potassium hydroxide produces a noticeable fishy, amine-likc smell.
Danazol (Danocrine) has been highly effective in relieving the symptoms of endometriosis, but adverse effects may preclude its use. Adverse effects include headache, flushing, sweating and atrophic vaginitis. Androgenic side effects include acne, edema, hirsutism, deepening of the voice and weight gain. The initial dosage should be 800 mg per day, given in two divided oral doses. The overall response rate is 84 to 92 percent.
Mucocutaneous candidiasis is always a sign of immunodeficiency and should be seen as a reason to consider starting HAART, even with a good immune status. Esophageal candidiasis and even oral thrush often occur following other OIs. Fever, which is not a classic symptom of candidiasis, is a particular indication to be on the alert. If immune status is good, it must be remembered that there are also other reasons for thrush - alcoholism and steroid treatment are only two of many possibilities. In addition to candidiasis of the oropharynx and esophagus, vaginitis is a frequent problem. Candidemia occurs only rarely in HIV-infected patients, even with severe immunodeficiency.
Historical note Goldenseal is indigenous to North America and was traditionally used by the Cherokees and then by early American pioneers. Preparations of the root and rhizome were used for gastritis, diarrhoea, vaginitis, dropsy, menstrual abnormalities, eye and mouth inflammation, and general ulceration. In addition to this, the plant was used for dyeing fabric and weapons. Practitioners of the eclectic school created a high demand for goldenseal around 1 847. This ensured the herb's ongoing popularity in Western herbal medicine, but unfortunately led to it being named a threatened species in 1 997. Today, most high-quality goldenseal is from cultivated sources.
Liquid SilkTM, or ErosTM (silicone based) can offer more comfortable vaginal penetration without side effects. Water-based lubricants are safe to use with all sex toys and condoms, whereas oil-based lubricants can react with rubber and cause it to disintegrate. Oil-based products such as VaselineTM can irritate the mucous membranes of the vagina and is difficult to wash away. Many water-based lubricants contain glycerin, which may lead to vaginal infections or allergic reactions in some women. To avoid this, it is recommended that women wash thoroughly after using a lubricant, or find a water-based product that does not contain glycerin as an ingredient. Women should avoid lubricants with flavoring in them because they often contain sugar, which can also contribute to yeast infections.
Bacterial Vaginosis Facts
This fact sheet is designed to provide you with information on Bacterial Vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina.