Typical profile

Age:

• Any age—late teens to old age, usually 22-55 History of injury:

• Yes, lifting or twisting Site and radiation:

• Unilateral lumbar (may be central)

• Refers over sacrum, SIJ areas, buttocks

Type of pain:

• Deep aching pain, episodic Aggravation:

• Activity, lifting, gardening, housework (vacuuming, making beds, etc.) Relief:

• Rest, warmth Associations:

• May be stiffness, usually good health Physical examination (significant):

• Localised tenderness—unilateral or central L4, L5 or S1 levels, may be restricted flexion, extension, lateral flexion

Diagnosis confirmation:

Investigation usually normal

Note: diagnosis made clinically

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