Typhoid immunisation is not required for entry into any country but is recommended for travel to Third World countries where the standards of sanitation are low. It should be considered for travellers to smaller cities, and village and rural areas in Africa, Asia, Central and South America and Southern Europe.
The parenteral (subcutaneous) vaccine can be used but the new Typhim Vi vaccine or the oral vaccine, which have fewer side effects, are generally preferred. The oral vaccine, which is given as a series of four capsules, appears to afford protection for about 5 years but is contraindicated in the immunocompromised.
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