Tumour markers

A tumour marker is an abnormal characteristic that is specific for a particular type of malignancy, e.g. the Philadelphia chromosome for chronic myeloid leukaemia. Other examples include human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) (elevated in trophoblastic tumours and germ cell neoplasms of the testes and ovaries) and the oncofetal antigens—carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP). CEA and AFP are not specific markers but are elevated in certain tumours and are very useful in monitoring tumour activity.

Tumour markers, some of which are yet unidentified, would appear to have an important role in future diagnosis and management of malignant disease. The most valuable are those associated with testis cancer — AFP and beta HCG. Markers may be an adjunct to diagnosis of certain malignancies including CEA for bowel cancer and CA-125 for ovarian cancer.

Dealing With Back Pain

Dealing With Back Pain

Deal With Your Pain, Lead A Wonderful Life An Live Like A 'Normal' Person. Before I really start telling you anything about me or finding out anything about you, I want you to know that I sympathize with you. Not only is it one of the most painful experiences to have backpain. Not only is it the number one excuse for employees not coming into work. But perhaps just as significantly, it is something that I suffered from for years.

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