Table 221 Investigation of urinary tract infections

Investigations are indicated in:

— acute pyelonephritis

— recurrent infections

— confirmed sterile pyuria

— other features of renal disease Basic investigations include:

• MSU—microscopy and culture (post-treatment)

• Renal function tests: plasma urea and creatinine

• Intravenous urogram (IVU) and/or ultrasound Special considerations:

• In children: micturating cystogram

• In adult males: consider prostatic infection studies if IVU normal

• In severe pyelonephritis: ultrasound or IVU (urgent) to exclude obstruction

• In pregnant women: ultrasound to exclude obstruction

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Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

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