Table 221 Investigation of urinary tract infections

Investigations are indicated in:

— acute pyelonephritis

— recurrent infections

— confirmed sterile pyuria

— other features of renal disease Basic investigations include:

• MSU—microscopy and culture (post-treatment)

• Renal function tests: plasma urea and creatinine

• Intravenous urogram (IVU) and/or ultrasound Special considerations:

• In children: micturating cystogram

• In adult males: consider prostatic infection studies if IVU normal

• In severe pyelonephritis: ultrasound or IVU (urgent) to exclude obstruction

• In pregnant women: ultrasound to exclude obstruction

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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