Specific infectious diseases and immunisation

Protection from many types of infection is available through immunisation. All travellers should be immunised against tetanus, polio and diphtheria and measles. Protection against tetanus requires an initial course of three injections followed by a booster every 10 years.

Vaccinations are required for special circumstances. Yellow fever vaccination is a legal requirement for any travellers returning from a yellow fever endemic area. Cholera is not usually required. Some travellers may be exposed to tuberculosis, hepatitis, plague, rabies, typhoid, typhus, and meningococcal infection. Immunisation against these is available and recommended for those at risk. Smallpox has now been eradicated from the world and therefore smallpox vaccination is no longer required for any traveller.

Japanese B encephalitis presents as a special problem to the traveller. Table 12.4 outlines a summary of recommendations to consider. 6

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