Specific disease investigation

Such tests include:

• peripheral arterial studies

• HLA-B27 antigen test for ankylosing spondylitis and Reiter's disease

• serum electrophoresis for multiple myeloma

• brucella agglutination test

• blood culture for pyogenic infection and bacterial endocarditis

• bone scanning to demonstrate inflammatory or neoplastic disease and infections (e.g. osteomyelitis) before changes are apparent on plain X-ray

• tuberculosis studies

• X-rays of shoulder and hip joint

• electromyographic (EMG) studies to screen leg pain and differentiate neurological diseases from nerve compression syndromes

• radioisotope scanning

• technetium pyrophosphate scan of SIJ for ankylosing spondylitis

• selective anaesthetic block of facet joint under image intensification

• selective anaesthetic block of medial branches of posterior primary rami and other nerve roots

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