Signs

• soft swelling (effusion and synovial swelling)

• tenderness on pressure or movement

• limitation of movement

• muscle wasting

• later stages: deformity, subluxation, instability or ankylosing

The various possible extra-articular manifestations are summarised in Figure 31.6 .

anaemia In lamination of eye

5iogrgnrs gyndrnme

■ rlry mouth lympfriadenopathy

Pulmonary

■ pleural efnision

■ fibrosing alveolitis

■ nodules (Capian's syndrome)

amyloidosis nyiffloosis

Vasculi: ü ^»-puípuía liai I-fold infarcts skin ulcere nyiffloosis

Vasculi: ü ^»-puípuía liai I-fold infarcts skin ulcere

Cervical spine

■ atlantoaxial subluxation

Cardiac

■ myocarditis

Baker's cyst (popliteal ftissa)

J peripheral sensory neuropathy i mononeuritis multiplex

Fig. 31.S Rheumatoid arthritis: significant non-articular clinical manifestations

Cervical spine

■ atlantoaxial subluxation

Cardiac

■ myocarditis splenomegaly (Fslty's íynilrome)

subcutaneous n-ociules bursitis tenosynovitis carpal tunnel syndronw

Raynaud's phenomenon

Baker's cyst (popliteal ftissa)

J peripheral sensory neuropathy i mononeuritis multiplex

Fig. 31.S Rheumatoid arthritis: significant non-articular clinical manifestations

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