Recurrent infections occur as a relapse of a previously treated infection or because of reinfection, often with differing organisms. Persistent (chronic) UTIs indicate that the organism is resistant to the antimicrobial agents employed or that there is an underlying abnormality such as a renal stone or a chronically infected prostate in the male patient. Such infections may be treated with prolonged courses of an appropriate antibiotic or removal of the focus of infection.
In men and children an anatomical abnormality is usual, while recurrent cystitis in women often occurs despite a normal tract. In men, instruction on perineal hygiene, more frequent bladder emptying and postintercourse voiding may assist in the prevention of reinfection.
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