Pretest counselling

• Give information on the test (what it tells and does not tell).

• Explain about the false negative and 'window period'.

• Give appropriate information about HIV disease and other STDs.

• Dispel any myths about transmission of infection.

• Give preventive advice on safer practices (sex and IV drugs).

• Assess the possible coping mechanisms of the patient.

• Assess the patient's social support networks and interpersonal bonds.

• Reassure about confidentiality. This is a legal requirement.

• Discuss who to tell: informing sexual contacts.

• Offer tests other than STDs.


• Discuss how patient 'will cope with the test'.

• Discuss legal requirements (check with state laws).

• Advise of need for informed consent (not only for HIV test but other STDs).

• Make arrangements to discuss the test results.

Consider the useful question: 'How would your behaviour change, if at all, as a result of having this test today?'

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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