Outcome and followup

• The calculus is likely to pass spontaneously if < 5 mm (90% < 4 mm pass spontaneously). 10

• If > 5 mm intervention will usually be required by lithotripsy or surgery.

• If the patient passes the calculus, he or she should retrieve it and present it for analysis.

• A repeat IVP may be necessary if there is evidence of obstruction for more than 3 weeks.

• The cause of the 'stone' should be considered. Search for causes such as hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcaemia, hyperoxaluria.

• Fever with ureteric colic indicates an obstructed infected kidney.

Dealing With Back Pain

Dealing With Back Pain

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