Outcome and followup

• The calculus is likely to pass spontaneously if < 5 mm (90% < 4 mm pass spontaneously). 10

• If > 5 mm intervention will usually be required by lithotripsy or surgery.

• If the patient passes the calculus, he or she should retrieve it and present it for analysis.

• A repeat IVP may be necessary if there is evidence of obstruction for more than 3 weeks.

• The cause of the 'stone' should be considered. Search for causes such as hyperparathyroidism, hypercalcaemia, hyperoxaluria.

• Fever with ureteric colic indicates an obstructed infected kidney.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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