Metastatic tumours

It is very helpful for the practitioner to have a working knowledge of possible primary sources of tumour when metastatic lesions are detected in various organs.

Common sites of metastatic presentation are the lymph nodes, liver, lung, mediastinum and bone. Other sites include the brain, bone marrow, peritoneum, retroperitoneum, skin and the spinal cord. These important sites (listed below) are followed by likely primary sources with the most likely listed first.

• Liver. Colon, pancreas, liver, stomach, breast, lung, melanoma

• Lung and mediastinum. Breast, lung, colon, kidney, testes, cervix/uterus, Hodgkin's disease, melanoma

• Bone. Breast, prostate, lung, Hodgkin's disease, kidney, thyroid, melanoma

• Brain. Breast, lung, colon, lymphoma, kidney, melanoma, prostate

• Skin. Lung, colon, melanoma, Kaposi's sarcoma

o High cervical. Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, oropharynx, nasopharynx o Low cervical. Lung, stomach, lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, oropharynx, larynx, skin, tongue o Axillary. Breast, lung, lymphoma o Inguinal. Lymphoma, ovary, uterus, vulva, prostate, skin

• Retroperitoneum. Lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, ovary, uterus, testes, prostate

It is important to keep in mind those malignancies that are potentially curable and refer as soon as possible.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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