Key points

• Misdiagnosis is common as transient symptoms may be mistaken for an emotional or psychiatric disorder. Many cases take years to diagnose.

• Dystonias are often regarded as nervous tics.

• The cause is thought to be disorders of the basal ganglia of the brain, but mainly there is no known specific cause.

• Neuroleptic and dopamine receptor blocking agents (e.g. levodopa, metoclopramide) can induce a severe generalised dystonia, e.g. oculogyric crisis, which is treated with benztropine 12 mg IM or IV. 16

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Dealing With Back Pain

Dealing With Back Pain

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